What type of metabolism (anabolic or catabolic) does Sympathetic activity promote?
Describe the paravertebral ganglia.
Paravertebral ganglia is sometimes called chain ganglia. It runs lateral and parallel to the spinal cord and controls effectors in the body wall and thoracic cavity. It increases circulation to skeletal muscle, heat and brain. It releases lipids from subcutaneous fat, stimulates sweat glands and energy production and use in muscle.
Describe the prevertebral ganglia.
Describe the adrenal medulla.
What are some structures that receive only sympathetic fibers?
Where do parasympathetic neurons come off the CNS?
4 cranial nerves on the brain stem and spinal nerves S2 � S4
Describe the structure and locations of the pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic neurons in the Parasympathetic division.
Ganglia are far from CNS to be closer to visceral effectors and it is because of this arrangement that the pre-ganglionic neurons are long while the post-ganglionic neurons are short.
What kind of divergence is seen in the parasympathetic division and how does this influence parasympathetic nerve effects?
There is little to no divergence in the parasympathetic division due to the need for more specific and greater control, meaning each area is activated only as needed.
What type of metabolism (anabolic or catabolic) does Parasympathetic activity promote?
This activity promotes anabolic metabolism and burns little energy allowing the body to restock.
Why do we say the parasympathetic division is an energy conserving/restoring system?
What structures receive only parasympathetic fibers?
Define Dual Innervation.
Organs that receive signals from both sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Name the 5 parts of a visceral autonomic reflex.
Autonomic motor neurons
Which parts of a visceral autonomic reflex are similar/identical to somatic reflexes like the knee jerk reflex?
Receptor, Sensory Neuron, & Effector
Which parts of a visceral autonomic reflex are different from the somatic reflexes?
Association neurons & Autonomic motor neurons
Name 2 major differences between somatic and autonomic reflexes.
Somatic reflex effectors are skeletal muscles which mean they are not precise.
Autonomic reflex are smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, glands or adipocytes. These reflexes help maintain homeostasis.
What type of neurotransmitter do Cholinergic neurons release?
Describe Nicotinic ACh receptors and give location.
They are always excitatory and are at all synapses between preganglionic and ganglionic cells in ANS.
What are some of the results of stimulating nicotinic receptors?
Opens chemically gated Na+ channels.
What is nicotine poisoning and what are some of the symptoms?
Increased salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, BP & heart rate, as well as convulsions.
Describe Muscarinic ACh receptors & give location.
Some are inhibited and other receptors are stimulated. They are found at neuromuscular and neuroglandular parasympathetic junctions as well as cholinergic sympathetic junctions.
What are some of the results of stimulating muscarinic receptors?
See above SEE NOTES
What is muscarine poisoning and what are some of the symptoms?
Increased salivation, vomiting, diarrhea and decreased blood pressure and heart rate. The airways narrow, too.
What types of neurotransmitters do adrenergic neurons release?
Norephinephrine and epinephrine.
What are some of the effects of adrenergic stimulation?
Enhanced effects of sympathetic stimulation, may activate enzymes or may stimulate metabolism.
It may help to make a chart to compare and contrast the structures and functions of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems. Include: Location of each, general effects of each, structures that receive innervation from both, structures that receive innervation from only one of them and the types of neurotransmitter used by each.