psych 260 chapter 15

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psych 260 chapter 15
2011-05-17 22:47:25
psych chapter

psych 260 chapter 15
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  1. Schizophrenia (biological and neurological disorder)
    characterized by disordered thoughts, delusions, hallucinations, and often bizarre behaviors
  2. Schizophrenia: positive symptoms
    evident by its presence; delusions, hallucinations, or thought disorders; thought to be because of dopamine antagonists
  3. Schizophrenia: negative symptoms
    characterized by the absence of behaviors that are normally present; social withdrawl, flattened emotional response, and reduced motivation
  4. Schizophrenia: cognitive symptoms
    characterized by cognitive difficulties; difficulty in sustaining attention, deficits in learning and memory, poor problem solving
  5. schizophrenia: twin studies
    Monochorionic twins (share a placenta) are more likely to both have the disease
  6. Schizophrenia: Hypofrontality of prefrontal cortex
    decreased activity believed to be responsible for the negative symptoms
  7. Schizophrenia: treatment
    Atypical antischizophrenic drugs seem to do the impossible (increase dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex and reduce it in the nucleus accumbens)
  8. Major Depressive Disorder (Unipolar)
    serious mood disorder that consists of unremitting periods of depression
  9. Bipolar Disorder
    serious mood disorder characterized by cyclical periods of mania and depression
  10. Heritability of major affective disorders
    both twins being affected (more in monozygotic than dizygotic)
  11. Monoamine Hypothesis
    Depression is caused by low levels of ≥1 monoamine, Tryptophan depletion results in reduced levels of serotonin (depletion is correlated with depression in people with personal/family history of depression)
  12. Biological treatments for depression
    Drug therapy to increase NE or serotonin, which include Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, Tricyclic antidepressant, SSRI, SNRI
  13. Other Biological treatments for depression
    ECT (shock treatment), TMS (magnetic treatment, deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, phototherapy (bright light), and sleep deprivation
  14. Panic disorder
    episodic periods of symptoms such as shortness of breath, irregularities in heartbeat, and other autonomic symptoms, accompanied by intense fear
  15. Generalized anxiety disorder
    excessive anxiety and worry serious enough to cause disruption of people’s lives
  16. Social anxiety disorder
    excessive fear of being exposed to scrutiny of others-->avoidance of social situations in which the person is called on to perform
  17. OCD
    characterized by recurrant, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors
  18. OCD (heritability)
    greater concordance for obsessions and compulsions in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins
  19. OCD (Enviornmental)
    brain damage caused by various means, such as birth trauma, encephalitis, and head trauma