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2011-05-18 02:14:32
neuro exam lab

neuro exam 3 lab 9
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  1. Agnosia in general
    Lesion to multimodal association areas (not primary sensory loss). Umbrella term which describes inability to recognize familar person or objects. (Astereognosis, Finger agnosia, visual agnosias, auditory agnosia etc.)
  2. Astereognosis or Agraphesthesia
    Inabilty to recognize objects by touch or recognize letter traced onto the hand.
  3. Finger agnosia
    inability to distinguish individual fingers
  4. Prosopagnosia
    Damage to right fusiform gyrus. Inability to recognize familiar faces.
  5. Auditory Agnosia
    pure word deafness or inability to recognize rhythms, tones, melodies
  6. Anosognosia
    lack of awareness or denial of own deficit
  7. Apraxia in general
    Lesion of parietal, frontal or cerebellum. Umbrella term which describes the inability to perform specific actions (ideomotor, constructional, agraphia, acalculia)
  8. Agraphia
    Lesion of inferior parietal lobe. inability to write
  9. Acalculia
    Inability to perform simple arithmetic
  10. Constructional Apraxia
    Lesion of parietal association area. Inability to copy a drawing or build a stimple structure
  11. Ideomotor apraxia
    Lesion of parietal association area. Cannot carry an action in response to a simple command
  12. Lesion of Parietal Association Area
    Deficit in spatial awareness, abilites, and attention. Cannot carry out visually guided movements.
  13. Contralateral Hemineglect Syndrome
    Lesion in nondominant (right) parietal association area. Patient ignores one side of the body (left) completely.
  14. Gerstmann's Syndrome
    Lesion in dominant (left) inferior parietal lobe. Four hallmark signs: Agraphia, Acalculia, Right-left confusion, Finger agnosia.
  15. Attention Rays and Right Parietal Hemisphere
    Lesion in the right parietal hemisphere produces a more pronounced loss of visual attention to the entire visual field. Left lesion only causes loss of some of right visual field.
  16. Frontal Lobe Lesions
    Lesion to the left causes depression, lesion to the right causes mania. Loss of Executive Functions (restraint, initiative, order/organizational planning). Also emotional changes, social changes, distractibility, impaired working memory, perseveration, anosmia, incontinence, frontal release signs. Preservation of IQ, episodic memory, language, perception, spatial organization.
  17. WCST test
    Wisconsin card sort task tests perseverance (ability to change rules).
  18. Tower of London
    Tests planning and sequencing
  19. Stroop test
    Test inhibition by showing words of colors in a different color and told to name the color, not read the word.
  20. Delayed Response Task
    Tests working memory
  21. Split Brain Patients
    Those who have had their corpus callosum severed to treat epileptic seizures in the area. Patients report that their left sides seems to have a mind of its own.
  22. Broca's Aphasia
    Infarct of superior MCA causes damage to Brodmann 44 and 45 (left inferior frontal gyrus). Associated with paresis of right arm. Difficulty producing language (non-fluent, motor, expressive aphasia). Can not repeat given words back to you. Comprehension alright so patient is frustrated cus aware of own deficit.
  23. Transcortical Motor Aphasia
    Infarct in the MCA-ACA watershed. Like Broca's but can repeat words back
  24. Wernicke's Aphasia
    Infarct of inferior MCA causes damage to Brodmann 22 (post. superior temporal gyrus). Associated with right upper visual quadrantopia and other apraxia. Difficulty with reading, writing, and speech comprehension (fluent, sensory or receptive aphasia), cannot repeat words back. Patient is unitellegible. Speech production okay.
  25. Transcortical Sensory Aphasia
    Infarct in the MCA-PCA watershed. Like Wernicke's but can repeat words back
  26. Conduction Aphasia
    Infarct in arcuate fasiculus interrupts connection between Broca and Wern. Cannot name pictures, repeat sentences, or assemble phenomes. Comprehension and fluency is intact.
  27. Anomic Aphasia
    Like conduction but can repeat words back
  28. Global Aphasia
    Infarct of sup. and inf. MCA causes massive perisylvian damage. No comprehension, formulation or repetition of speech. Able to recite old songs, name and alphabet.
  29. ALexia w/o agraphia
    Infarct of PCA will damage left striate cortex (left LGN or left optic tract) and splenium of the corpus callosum causes the loss of the ability to read. Right visual field was knocked out from before. Left visual field is intact but cannot be transferred from the right visual cortex to the language circuit which is located on the left (splenium legion).
  30. Specific Language Syndrome (SLI)
    FOXP2 mutation causes a loss of language/verbal skills. IQ, memory and social skills are okay. suports modular view of language.
  31. Williams Syndrome
    Mutation in chromosome 7. Causes loss of IQ and visual spatial skills. Opposite of autism or DS. Language, emotion, and expression are okay. Supports modular view of language
  32. Dysarthia
    Inability to speak cus of weakness/loss of coordination of tongue and face muscles.
  33. Thalamic Pain Syndrome (Post-stroke pain syndrome)
    Pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia on contralateral face and upper extremities due to post-stroke pathalogical plasticity in the somatosensory pathways.
  34. Deficit in Outer Upper quadrant of visual field
    Lesion in anterior temporal lobe that catches Meyer's loop of contralateral side.
  35. Right ways eyes (eyes point toward lesion - away from weak side)
  36. Wrong ways eyes (eyes point away from lesion - toward weak side)