Technology - Flashcards

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Technology - Flashcards
2011-05-18 05:22:53

From Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice (4th edition), 2006, Renfrew and Bahn, Thames & Hudson
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  1. Eoliths
    Crude stone pebbles found in Lower Pleistocene contexts; once thought to be the work of human agency, but now generally regarded as natural products.

    (Chapter 8 p. 318)
  2. Hand-axe
    A Paleolithic stone tool usually made by modifying (chipping or flaking) a natural pebble.

    (Chapter 8 p. 325)
  3. Oldowan Industry
    The earliest toolkits, comprising flake and pebble tools, used by hominids in the Olduvai Gorge, East Africa.

    (Chapter 8 p. 325)
  4. Chaine Operatoire
    Ordered chain of actions, gestures, and processes in a production sequence (e.g. of a stone tool or a pot) which led to the transformation of a given material toward the finished product.

    (Chapter 8 p. 325)
  5. Refitting
    Sometimes referred to as conjoining, this entails attempting to put stone tools and flakes back together again, and provides important information on the processes involved in the knapper's craft.

    (Chapter 8 p. 328)
  6. Microwear analysis
    The study of the patterns of wear or damage on the edge of stone tools, which provides valuable information on the way in which the tool was used.

    (Chapter 8 p. 329)
  7. Pyrotechnology
    The intentional use and control of fire by humans.

    (Chapter 8 p. 341)
  8. Temper
    Inclusions in pottery clay which act as a filler to give the clay added strength and workability and to counteract any cracking or shrinkage during firing.

    (Chapter 8 p. 343)
  9. Faience
    Glass-like material first made in predynastic Egypt; it involves coating a core material of powdered quartz with a vitreous alkaline glaze.

    (Chapter 8 pp. 344-45)
  10. Metallographic Examination
    A technique used in the study of early metallurgy involving the microscopic examination of a polished section cut from an artifact, which has been etched so as to reveal the metal structure.

    (Chapter 8 p. 347)
  11. Annealing
    In copper and bronze metallurgy, this refers to the repeated process of heating and hammering the material to produce the desired shape.

    (Chapter 8 p. 348)
  12. Alloying
    Technique involving the mixing of two or more metals to create a new material, e.g. the fusion of copper and tin to make bronze.

    (Chapter 8 pp. 348-49)
  13. Lost-wax method
    A casting technique that involved encasing a wax model in fine clay, baking the clay mold before pouring the melted wax out through a small hole. Molten metal was then poured into the hollow clay mold and finally the clay was broken away to reveal the metal casting.

    (Chapter 8 p. 350)
  14. Slag
    The material residue of smelting processes from metalworking. Analysis is often necessary to distinguish slags derived from copper smelting from those produced in iron production. Crucible slags (from the casting process) may be distinguished from smelting slags by their high concentration of copper.

    (Chapter 8 p. 351)
  15. Tuyere
    A ceramic blowtube used in the process of smelting.

    (Chapter 8 pp. 352)
  16. Filigree
    Fine open metalwork using wires and soldering, first developed in the Near East.

    (Chapter 8 p. 352)
  17. Granulation
    The soldering of grains of metal to a background , usually of the same metal, and much used by the Etruscans.

    (Chapter 8 p. 352)
  18. Plating
    A method of bonding metals together, for instance silver with copper or copper with gold.

    (Chapter 8 p. 352-53)