Trade and Exchange - Flashcards

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Trade and Exchange - Flashcards
2011-05-18 16:23:01

From Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice (4th edition), 2006, Renfrew and Bahn, Thames & Hudson
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  1. World system
    A term coined by the historian Wallerstein to designate an economic unit, articulated by trade networks extending far beyond the boundaries of individual political units (nation states), and linking them together in a larger functioning unit.

    (Chapter 9 p. 358)
  2. Reciprocity
    A mode of exchange in which transactions take place between individuals who are symmetrically placed, i.e. they are exchanging as equals, neither being in a dominant position.

    (Chapter 9 p. 361)
  3. Redistribution
    A mode of exchange which implies the operation of some central organizing authority. Goods are received or appropriated by the central authority, and subsequently some of them are sent by that authority to other locations.

    (Chapter 9 p. 361)
  4. Market exchange
    A mode of exchange which implies both a specific location for transactions and the sort of social relations where bargaining can occur. It usually involves a system of price-making through negotiation.

    (Chapter 9 p. 361)
  5. Kula Network
    A system of ceremonial, noncompetitive, exchange practiced in Melanesia to establish and reinforce alliances. Malinowski's study of this system was influential in shaping the anthropological concept of reciprocity.

    (Chapter 9 p. 360)
  6. Prestige goods
    A term used to designate a limited range of exchange goods to which a society ascribes high status or value.

    (Chapter 9 p. 362)
  7. Primitive valuables
    A term coined by Dalton to describe the tokens of wealth and prestige, often of specially valued items, that were used in the ceremonial exchange systems of non-state societies; examples include the shell necklaces and bracelets of the kula systems (cf. prestige goods).

    (Chapter 9 p. 364)
  8. Sphere of exchange
    In non-market societies , valuables were exchanged against valuables in prestige transactions, while commodities were exchanged against commodities. These separate systems of transaction are termed spheres of exchange.

    (Chapter 9 p. 364)
  9. Characterization
    The application of techniques of examination by which characteristic properties of the constituent material of traded goods can be identified, and thus their source of origin; e.g. petrographic thin-section analysis.

    (Chapter 9 p. 365)
  10. Thin section analysis
    A technique whereby microscopic thin sections are cut from a stone object or potsherd and examined with a petrological microscope to determine the source of the material.

    (Chapter 9 p. 365)
  11. Optical emission spectrometry (OES)
    A technique used in the analysis of artifact composition, based on the principle that electrons, when excited (i.e. heated to a high temperature), release light of a particular wavelength. The presence or absence of various elements is established by examining the appropriate spectral line of their characteristic wavelengths.

    (Chapter 9 p. 366)
  12. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)
    Technique used in the analysis of artifact composition based on the principle that electrons, when excited in a stream of argon plasma, release light of a particular wavelength. Very high temperatures can be reached, which reduces problems of interference between elements.

    (Chapter 9 p. 368)
  13. Atomic Absorption spectrometry (AAS)
    A method of analyzing artifact composition similar to optical emission spectrometry (OES) in that it measures energy in the form of visible light waves. It is capable of measuring up to 40 different elements with an accuracy ofc. 1 percent.

    (Chapter 9 p. 368)
  14. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)
    A method used in the analysis of artifact composition, in which the sample is irradiated with a beam of X-rays which excite electrons associated with atoms on the surface.

    (Chapter 9 p. 368)
  15. Electron probe microanalysis (SEM)
    Used in the analysis of artifact composition, this technique is similar to XRF ( X-ray fluorescence spectrometry ), and is useful for studying small changes in composition within the body of an artifact.

    (Chapter 9 p. 369)
  16. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)
    A method used in the analysis of artifact composition which depends on the excitation of the nuclei of the atoms of a sample's various elements, when these are bombarded with slow neutrons. The method is accurate to about plus or minus 5 percent.

    (Chapter 9 p. 369)
  17. Mossbauer spectroscopy
    A technique used in analysis of artifact composition, particularly iron compounds in pottery. It involves measurement of gamma radiation absorbed by the iron nuclei, which provides information on the particular iron compounds in the sample, and hence on the conditions of firing when the pottery was being made.

    (Chapter 9 p. 373)
  18. Infrared absorption spectroscopy
    A technique used in the characterization of raw materials, it has been particularly useful in distinguishing ambers from different sources: the organic compounds in the amber absorb different wavelengths of infrared radiation passed through them.

    (Chapter 9 p. 373)
  19. Trend Surface Analysis
    The aim of trend surface analysis is to highlight the main features of a geographic distribution by smoothing over some of the local irregularities. In this way, important trends can be isolated from the background "noise" more clearly.

    (Chapter 9 p. 378)
  20. Fall-off analysis
    The study of regularities in the way in which quantities of traded items found in the archaeological record decline as the distance from the source increases. This may be plotted as a falloff curve, with the quantities of material (Y-axis) plotted against distance from source (X-axis).

    (Chapter 9 p. 379)
  21. Interaction sphere
    A regional or interregional exchange system, e.g. the Hopewell interaction sphere.

    (Chapter 9 p. 389)
  22. Peer polity interaction
    The full range of exchanges taking place - including imitation, emulation, competition, warfare, and the exchange of material goods and information - between autonomous (self-governing) sociopolitical units, generally within the same geographic region.

    (Chapter 9 p. 388)