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The articulating ends of bones. The sequence in which these become fused to the bone shafts can give a an approximate age of death when applied to young people.
(Chapter 11 p. 433)
A method of protein analysis whereby it is possible to identify protein molecules surviving in fossils which are thousands and even millions of years old.
(Chapter 11 p. 438)
The material which carries the hereditary instructions (the "blueprint") which determine the formation of all living organisms. Genes , the organizers of inheritance, are composed of DNA.
(Chapter 11 pp. 439-40)
The basic units of inheritance, now known to be governed by the specific sequence of the genetic markers within the DNA of the individual concerned.
(Chapter 11 p. 440)
These are made by pouring latex rubber into a skull, so as to produce an accurate image of the inner surface of the cranium. This method gives an estimate of cranial capacity and has been used on early hominid skulls.
(Chapter 11 p. 444)
Computed axial tomography
The method by which scanners allow detailed internal views of bodies such as mummies. The body is passed into the machine and images of cross-sectional "slices" through the body are produced.
(Chapter 11 pp. 448-49)
A field of research which is concerned with estimates from archaeological data of various aspects of population such as size, density, and growth rates. It is also concerned with the role of population in culture change.
(Chapter 11 p. 460)
A field of research primarily concerned with the study of skeletal remains to estimate population parameters such as fertility rates and mortality rates, population structure, and life expectancy.
(Chapter 11 p. 460)
Classificatory term in linguistics, referring to a group of language families showing sufficient similarities to suggest that they are genetically related (e.g. the Nostratic macrofamily, seen by some linguists as a unit embracing the Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic, Uralic, Altaic, and Kartvelian language families).
(Chapter 11 p. 462)