Basal Ganglia S2M1

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Author:
lancesadams
ID:
86634
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Basal Ganglia S2M1
Updated:
2011-08-11 20:54:07
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Ross S2M1
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Neuro
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  1. What is the Basal Ganglia
    Masses of Grey matter within the cerebral hemispheres
  2. What are the other names used for the Basal Ganglia
    • Cerebral Nuclei
    • Basal Nuclei
  3. What Nuclei make up the Striatum
    • Caudate Nucleus
    • Nucleus accumbens
    • Putamen
  4. What Nuclei make up the Lentiform Nucleus
    • Putamen
    • Globus pallidus
    • -External (GPe)
    • -Internal (GPi)
  5. What are the main components of the Basal Ganglia
    • Caudate Nucleus
    • Nucleus accumbens
    • Putamen
    • Globus Pallidus
    • Subthalamic Nuclei
    • Substantia nigra
  6. What are the two subnuclei of the substantia nigra
    • Pars compacta (SNc)
    • Pars reticulata (SNr)
  7. What makes the substantia nigra black
    • Melatonin
    • Dompamine neurons
  8. What is the role of the Basal Ganglia
    It plays an important role in motor function by both initiating and stopping unwanted and uneeded movements
  9. What is the parallel loop from the associated cortex
    • Association cortex
    • Caudate
    • Globus Pallidus
    • Thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus)
    • Association cortex
    • "AC = Good Times"
  10. What is the parallel loop from the Sensorimotor cortex
    • Sensorimotor cortex
    • Putamen
    • Thalamus (ventral anterior nucleus, ventral lateral nucleus)
    • Sensorimotor cortex
    • "No Sense Pushing Time"
  11. What is the parallel loop for the Limbic cortex
    • Limbic Cortex
    • Nucleus Accumbens
    • Ventral pallidum
    • Thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus)
    • Limbic cortex
    • "Lap To Lap"
  12. What does the Striatum receive input and send output to
    • Input: Cerebral cortex, substantia nigra compacta, thalamus
    • Output: Globus pallidus (GPi/GPe) Substantia nigra (SNr/SNc)
    • Inhibitory Output
  13. What does the Globus pallidus externa (GPe) recieve input and send output to
    • Input: Striatum, Subthalamic nuclei
    • Output: Striatum, GPi, and Subthalamic nucleus
    • Output is inhibitory
  14. What does the Globus pallidus interna (GPi) receive input and send output to
    • Input: Striatum, Subthalamic nuclei, GPe
    • Output: Thalamus
    • Inhibitory output
  15. What does the Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) receive input and send output to
    • Input: Striatum, Subthalamic nuclei, GPe
    • Output: Thalamus
    • Inhibitory output
  16. What does the Subthalamic nuclei receive input and send output to
    • Input: GPe, Cortex
    • Output: GPi, SNr
    • Output is Excititory
  17. What does the Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) receive input and send output to
    • Input: Striatum
    • Output: Widespread but especially to Striatum
    • Output is Modulatory
  18. What is the only Basal ganglia that sends excititory output
    Subthalamic Nuclei
  19. What basal ganglia is the modulatory center
    Substantia nigra pars compacta
  20. What is the direct and indirect pathway of the basal ganglia
    • Direct: Cortex > Striatum > GPi > Thalamus > Cortex
    • Indirect: Cortex > Striatum > GPe > STN > GPi > Thalamus > Cortex
  21. What is the difference in the outcome of the Direct and Indirect pathway of the Basal Ganglia
    • Direct: The cortex excites itself
    • Indirect: The cortex inhibits itself
  22. What are the neurotransmitters used in the basal ganglia for Excitation, Inhibition, and Modulation
    • Excitation - Glutamate
    • Inhibitory - GABA
    • Modulatory - Dopamine
  23. What is one of the hypokinetic disorders
    Parkinsons
  24. What are the major Hyperkinetic Disorders
    • Huntingtons Disease
    • Athetosis
    • Hemiballismus
  25. What pathway is malfunctioning in parkinsons disease
    Substantia Nigra pars compacta (Dompamine) to the Striatum (modulatory pathway)
  26. What are the clinical features of someone with Parkinsons disease
    • Tremors
    • Rigidity
    • Bradykinesia
    • Anteroflexed position
    • Postural instability
    • Freezing/fastinating gait
    • Poor balance
    • "Poor BRAT, freezing and instable"
  27. What are the clinical features and regions affected in Huntington's disease
    • Jerky movements, chorea (dance), Dementia, and personality changes
    • Striatum, Caudate nucleus, spiny neurons are affected
    • "Spineless Hunters Camp in the Sticks"
  28. What are the clinical features and cause of Athetosis
    • Slow movement in hands and fingers
    • Striatum lesion
  29. What are the clinical signs and reason for Hemiballismus
    • Wild flailing of one arm and leg
    • Subthalamic nucleus is damaged
    • "They put Hemi engines in Subs"

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