At Sutter's mill, which was in present day Sacramento.
John Sutter immigrated from which country?
Which present day city is on the site of Sutter's mill?
Which employee of Sutter built a sawmill, and then found gold there?
When was the gold at Sutter's mill discovered?
Did Sutter tell everyone that he had found gold?
No, he wanted to keep it a secret.
When did the discovery of gold become national news?
By late 1848, within a year of Marshall's discovery.
The gold was discovered just before the "Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo" was signed. This treaty ended which war?
The Mexican-American war.
Which country controlled the land in California when gold was found?
By 1949, which city had become the supply center for the entire gold rush?
San Francisco grew from a small town of about 800 people before the Gold Rush to a large city of over how many people by 1850?
Approximately 25,000 people.
How did most gold seekers get to California?
The greatest number of people traveled over the Oregon Trail in covered wagons.
Name the route that the "forty-niners" took in
ships sailing around the southern tip of South America.
The Cape Horn route.
If those with "gold fever" wanted to take a shorter route, where would they have to sail to and cross over land before boarding another ship to San Francisco?
They would have to cross over land in Central America, in either Nicaragua or Panama. (This route cut 8,000 miles and months of travel off the Cape Horn route.)
With so many more people coming to San Francisco than there were products to support them, the prices for food and housing went "sky high". This type of rising prices is known as what?
What else could people do to make money if they couldn't find gold?
They could use their skills from their previous jobs to sell supplies and services to the miners. They set up trading posts, farmed, cooked, opened hotels, etc.
In what year did California become a state?
Even though the overland route was very difficult and the slowest route, what were some of its advantages?
It was the cheapest way to get to California. They could pack more gear in a wagon to cook, mine, farm and protect themselves.
How long did it take to journey to California by foot and covered wagon?
It took up to 6 months.
The pioneers making the overland crossing had only a 9 foot by 4 foot wide wagon to carry all the supplies for this difficult trip. What could happen if people were poorly prepared?
Many people died from illness, starvation and drowning.
What name from Greek mythology was given to people who traveled to California by ship?
They were called "Argonauts" from the Greek story in which Jason and his ship "Argo" searched for the Golden Fleece.
How long did the Cape Horn route take to reach San
The 17,000 miles route took 5 to 7 months.
What were some of the difficulties "Argonauts" faced on route aboard ship?
Travelers had to deal with fierce storms and lots of sickness due to poor living quarters and limited fruits, vegetables and clean water.
What did many people do with their ships when they reached the San Francisco harbor?
They abandoned them. (At one time there more than 500 ships in the SF harbor, most of which were left there to decay.)
Many people arriving by sea expected to find gold right off the boat. What did they have to do before they could start mining?
They had to find a way to travel 150 miles inland to the Sacramento valley.
Once the easy gold was found using pans, more inventive methods were needed, such as an 8 to 20 foot rocker. What was this device called?
The Long Tom.
Why was hydraulic mining made illegal in most states by 1900, even though it was the most profitable way to mine?
Hydraulic mining used tons of water to create rivers of mud to sort through, and this was very damaging to the environment.
How did some miners do so that they could mine the bottom of rivers?
They built dams to redirect the water and allow them to get to the river bottom.
How much gold would the average miner be lucky
to find in one day?
Six to ten dollars worth.
After what year was most of the surface gold already mined, making panning for gold no
By the end of 1852.
Name three difficulties the miners suffered in their camps?
Open fire cooking caused many fires; they had to survive bad weather such as heavy rain and snow; they often got sick from sleeping on the cold, damp ground; lack of fruits and vegetables caused scurvy; they didn’t have ways to bathe or was their clothes; they were homesick and lonely; the cost of living was very high.
How did ship owners get Chinese passengers to travel to the United States?
They printed brochures which exaggerated the amount of gold to be found in California.
Why did Asian workers usually get the jobs that were dangerous, difficult and low paying?
Because the white population controlled the job market, and they used their power to keep the better jobs for themselves.
The Chinese people provided 95% of the workers who built the western half of which railroad?
The Transcontinental Railroad.
The Central Pacific Railroad Company hired Chinese workers to build the railroad eastward from Sacramento. Union Pacific workers started building laying track westward from which city?
From Omaha, Nebraska.
After the gold rush, what became of many mining towns?
They became ghost towns because miners deserted them and headed for Nevada to mine for silver.