Neuro Miniboard

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Neuro Miniboard
2011-05-18 23:58:44
miniboard neuroscience neuroanatomy brain CNS

Questions to prepare for miniboard
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  1. What are the six gyri of the frontal lobe? What area does each gyrus control?
    • precentral gyrus: motor = area #4
    • superior frontal gyrus = supplementary motor cortex on media side = area #6
    • middle frontal gyrus = frontal eye field = area #8
    • inferior frontal gyrus = Broca speech area in dominant hemisphere (area 44 & 45)
    • gyrus rectus and orbital gyri = separated by olfactory sulcus
    • anterior paracentral lobule = on medial surface between superior frontal gyrus (paracentral sulcus) and central sulcus; represents the continuation of the precentral gyrus on the medial hemispheric surface
  2. What are the five lobules + gyri of the parietal lobe? What area does each gyrus control?
    • Postcentral gyrus = primary somatosensory area of cerebral cortex = area 3,1,2
    • Superior parietal lobule = comprises association area involved in somatosensory function = area 5 & 7
    • inferior parietal lobule:
    • a) supramarginal gyrus = interrelates somatosensory, auditory, and visual input (area 40)
    • b) angular gyrus = receives impulses from primary visual cortex
    • Precuneus = located between paracentral lobule and the cuneus
    • posterior paracentral lobule = located on medial surface between central sulcus and precuneus; represents continuation of postcentral gyrus on the medial hemispheric surface
  3. What are the gyri of the temporal lobe? What areas do they correspond to?
    • Transverse temporal gyri of Heschl = lie buried within the lateral sulcus; extend from the superior temporal gyrus toward the medial geniculate body; primary auditory areas of cerebral cortex (area 41 & 42)
    • superior temporal gyrus = associated with auditory functions; contains Wernicke speech area in dominant hemisphere (area 22); contains planum temporale on superior hidden surface
    • middle temporal gyrus
    • inferior temporal gyrus
    • lateral occipitotemporal gyrus (fusiform gyrus) = lies between the inferior temporal sulcus and the collateral sulcus
  4. What are the structures of the occipital lobe?
    • Cuneus = contains visual cortex (area 17,18,19)
    • Lingual gyrus = lies below the calcarine sulcus; contains visual cortex (area 17,18,19)
  5. What are the three layers of the meninges?
    • Pia mater
    • arachnoid
    • dura mater
  6. Parts of lateral ventricle? Choroid plexus present?
    • 1) Frontal (anterior) horn: NO choroid plexus
    • 2) Body: has choroid plexus; communicates w/ third ventricle via interventricular foramen of Monro
    • 3) Temporal (inferior) horn: has choroid pelxus
    • 4) Occipital (posterior) horn: NO choroid plexus
    • Trigone (atrium): contains glomus (a large tuft of choroid plexus wihch is calcified in adults and visible of x-ray + CT
  7. Where is the choroid plexus located in the third ventricle?
    contains a pair of choroid plexuses in its roof
  8. Where is the choroid plexus located in the 4th ventricle?
    contains a pair of choroid plexuses in its caudal roof
  9. Describe the rate of formation, total volume, composition (pH, specific gravity, glucose, total protein), and normal pressure of CSF
    • 500mL/day
    • 140mL total volume
    • pH 7.35
    • specific gravity 1.007
    • glucose 66% of plasma glucose
    • total protein <45mg/dL in lumbar cistern
    • 80-180mm of water (CSF) in lumbar subarachnoid space when patient is in lateral recumbent position
  10. What is the general role of circumventricular organs?
    • chemosensitive zones taht monitor the varying concentrations of circulating hormones in blood and CSF
    • highly vascularized with fenesterated capillaries and no blood-brain barrier (the subcommissural organ is an exception)
  11. What are the circumventricular organs? (6 of them)
    • 1) Organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis
    • 2) Median eminency of the tuber cinerum
    • 3) Subfornical organ
    • 4) Subcommissural organ
    • 5) Pineal body
    • 6) Area postrema