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What are the six gyri of the frontal lobe? What area does each gyrus control?
- precentral gyrus: motor = area #4
- superior frontal gyrus = supplementary motor cortex on media side = area #6
- middle frontal gyrus = frontal eye field = area #8
- inferior frontal gyrus = Broca speech area in dominant hemisphere (area 44 & 45)
- gyrus rectus and orbital gyri = separated by olfactory sulcus
- anterior paracentral lobule = on medial surface between superior frontal gyrus (paracentral sulcus) and central sulcus; represents the continuation of the precentral gyrus on the medial hemispheric surface
What are the five lobules + gyri of the parietal lobe? What area does each gyrus control?
- Postcentral gyrus = primary somatosensory area of cerebral cortex = area 3,1,2
- Superior parietal lobule = comprises association area involved in somatosensory function = area 5 & 7
- inferior parietal lobule:
- a) supramarginal gyrus = interrelates somatosensory, auditory, and visual input (area 40)
- b) angular gyrus = receives impulses from primary visual cortex
- Precuneus = located between paracentral lobule and the cuneus
- posterior paracentral lobule = located on medial surface between central sulcus and precuneus; represents continuation of postcentral gyrus on the medial hemispheric surface
What are the gyri of the temporal lobe? What areas do they correspond to?
- Transverse temporal gyri of Heschl = lie buried within the lateral sulcus; extend from the superior temporal gyrus toward the medial geniculate body; primary auditory areas of cerebral cortex (area 41 & 42)
- superior temporal gyrus = associated with auditory functions; contains Wernicke speech area in dominant hemisphere (area 22); contains planum temporale on superior hidden surface
- middle temporal gyrus
- inferior temporal gyrus
- lateral occipitotemporal gyrus (fusiform gyrus) = lies between the inferior temporal sulcus and the collateral sulcus
What are the structures of the occipital lobe?
- Cuneus = contains visual cortex (area 17,18,19)
- Lingual gyrus = lies below the calcarine sulcus; contains visual cortex (area 17,18,19)
What are the three layers of the meninges?
- Pia mater
- dura mater
Parts of lateral ventricle? Choroid plexus present?
- 1) Frontal (anterior) horn: NO choroid plexus
- 2) Body: has choroid plexus; communicates w/ third ventricle via interventricular foramen of Monro
- 3) Temporal (inferior) horn: has choroid pelxus
- 4) Occipital (posterior) horn: NO choroid plexus
- Trigone (atrium): contains glomus (a large tuft of choroid plexus wihch is calcified in adults and visible of x-ray + CT
Where is the choroid plexus located in the third ventricle?
contains a pair of choroid plexuses in its roof
Where is the choroid plexus located in the 4th ventricle?
contains a pair of choroid plexuses in its caudal roof
Describe the rate of formation, total volume, composition (pH, specific gravity, glucose, total protein), and normal pressure of CSF
- 140mL total volume
- pH 7.35
- specific gravity 1.007
- glucose 66% of plasma glucose
- total protein <45mg/dL in lumbar cistern
- 80-180mm of water (CSF) in lumbar subarachnoid space when patient is in lateral recumbent position
What is the general role of circumventricular organs?
- chemosensitive zones taht monitor the varying concentrations of circulating hormones in blood and CSF
- highly vascularized with fenesterated capillaries and no blood-brain barrier (the subcommissural organ is an exception)
What are the circumventricular organs? (6 of them)
- 1) Organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis
- 2) Median eminency of the tuber cinerum
- 3) Subfornical organ
- 4) Subcommissural organ
- 5) Pineal body
- 6) Area postrema