Autonomic Nervous System

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wrennywren
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86757
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Autonomic Nervous System
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2011-05-20 00:09:01
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Autonomic
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Autonomic
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  1. Parasympathetic Nervous System


    This system is in control of actions at rest such as digestive organs that induce the digestion of food and constricting the pupils and the vessels to the skeletal muscles. The response this division invokes is called the "rest and digest response".
  2. Sympathetic Nervous System


    • controls our 'fight or flight' responses. It quickly activates our body in preparation for action by increasing the heart rate, dilating the pupils and vessels to the muscles,
    • provoking sweating and suppressing digestion.
  3. The Eyes
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by Oculomotor nerve (CNIII) on the Ciliary muscle which contracts to thicken the lens. Post ganglionic cell bodies is the short cilliar nerves and ganglion associated with the eyes is the superior cervical ganglion. pupillary constrictor which constricts to narrow the pupil.

    • Sympathetic:

    Innervated by T1 and Post ganglionic cell bodies is superior cervical ganglion. Nerves act to vasodilate the blood vessels of the retina and constrict the dilator pupillae to widen the pupil.
  4. Lacrimal Gland and Mucosa of the Nasal Cavity
    Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by Facial nerve (CNVII). Post ganglion is the pterygopalatine ganglion and the post-ganglionic fibers are the zygomatic and palatine nerves. Target the lacrimal gland to increase production of tears and target the mucous membrane to increase production of mucus.
  5. Submandibular and Sublingual Glands
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by Facial nerve (CNVII) and Post-ganglionic fibers form the lingual nerve. Increase production of saliva for digestion
  6. Parotid Gland
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and synapse in the otic ganglion and Post-ganglionic fibers form the auriculotemporal nerve. Increases production of enzyme rich saliva and mucus for digestion
  7. Heart
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by Vagus nerve (CN X) and the ganlgia associated with the heart are the superior or middle cervical or cervicothoracic ganglia.and Post-ganglionic fibers are in the heart wall.. Muscle fibers of the atria are targeted to slow the cardiac cycle rate and reduce force.

    • Sympathetic:

    Innervated by T1-T5 nerves and post-ganglionic fibers form the cardiac plexus. Target the muscle fibers of the atria to increase rate and force of contraction.
  8. Lungs
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by Vagus nerve (CN X) and Post-ganglionic fibers are in the lung wall. Bronchioles constrict to reduce the rate of respiration

    • Sympathetic:

    Innervated by T2-T4 nerves and ganglion associated with the lungs is the middle cervical or cervicothoracic ganglia.and post-ganglionic fibers form the pulmonary plexus. Dilate the bronchial tube, which increases lung volume.
  9. Esophagus and Stomach
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by Vagus nerve (CN X) and post-ganglionic fibers are located in the esophageal and stomach wall.. Esophagus is targeted to increase peristalsis, which is the contraction of muscles to move food down the esophagus into the stomach. The stomach is also targeted to increase peristalsis and secretion of gastric juices, which are necessary for the breakdown of food.

    • Sympathetic:

    • Innervated by greater splanchnic nerve (T5-T10) and signals synapse in the celiac ganglion and Post-ganglionic fibers form the gastric plexus. Target the stomach and esophagus and reduce peristalsis
  10. Small Intestine (and proximal half of large intestine)
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by Vagus nerve (CN X) and Post-ganglionic fibers are located in the intestinal wall.. Targeted to increase peristalsis

    • Sympathetic:

    Innervated at lesser splanchnic nerves (T9-L1) and signals synapse in the mesenteric ganglion and Post-ganglionic fibers form the superior mesenteric plexus. Target the intestinal wall to reduce peristalsis
  11. Large intestine (distal half)
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by Vagus Nerve (CN X) and post-ganglionic fibers are found in the intestinal wall.. Colon is targeted to increase peristalsis and digestion.

    • Sympathetic:

    Innervated by lumbar splanchnic nerves (T11-L1) and they synapse in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and Post-ganglionic fibers form the inferior mesenteric plexus. Target the intestinal wall and reduce peristalsis.
  12. Kidneys
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by Vagus nerve (CN X) and Post-ganglionic fibers are found in the kidney wall. Targeted to increase urine production.

    • Sympathetic:

    Innervated by greater splanchnic nerve and the lowest splanchnic nerve (T8-L1) and they synapse in the aorticorenal ganglion and Post-ganglionic fibers form the renal plexus. Kidneys reduce urine production, and the suprarenal glands secrete 'fight or flight' hormones when innervated
  13. Bladder
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-S4) and Post-ganglionic fibers are found in the bladder wall. Bladder contracts and the urethra opens to allow micturition (urination)

    Sympathetic:



    Innervated by lumbar splanchnic nerves (T11-L2) and they synapse in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and Post-ganglionic fibers form the inferior hypogastric plexus. Urine is retained within the bladder when innervated
  14. Uterus
    • Parasympathetic:

    Innervated by pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-S4) and hypogastic plexus. Vasodilated and secretes mucous when innervated.

    • Sympathetic:

    Innervated by lumbar splanchnic nerves (T12-L1) and they synapse in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and Post-ganglionic fibers form the inferior hypogastric plexus. Causes the uterus to be relaxed, or to contract during labor
  15. Liver And Pancreas
    • Sympathetic:

    Innervated by greater splanchnic nerve (T7 -T10) and they synapse in the celiac ganglion and post-ganglionic fibers form the hepatic plexus. Innervation directs the liver to break down glycogen into glucose. This increases sugar levels in the blood, providing energy for tissues. The pancreas is targeted to decrease the secretion of digestive enzymes into the small intestine, which slows digestion.
  16. Nerves that innervate the Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • CN 3 (Oculomotor) - Eye
    • CN 7 (Facial) - Nose, Lacrimal glands, Submandibular glands, Sublingual glands.
    • CN 9 (Glossopharyngeal) - Parotid gland
    • CN 10 (Vagus) - Heart, Lungs, Esophagus, Stomach, Small and Large Intestines, Kidneys
    • S2-S4 (Pelvic splanchnic) - Bladder, Uterus
  17. Nerves that innervate the Sympathetic Nervous System
    • T1 - Eyes
    • T1-T5 - Heart
    • T2-T4 - Lungs
    • T7-T10 (greater splanchnic) - Liver, Pancreas
    • T5-T10 (greater splanchnic) - Esophagus, Stomach
    • T9-L1 (greater and lesser splanchnic) - Small Intestine and proximal Large Intestine
    • T11-L1 (lumbar splanchnic) - Distal Large Intestine
    • T8-L1 (greater splanchnic and lowest splanchnic) - Kidneys, Superarenal Gland
    • L2 (Lumbar splanchnic) - Rectum
    • T11-L2 (Lumbar splanchnic) - Bladder
    • T12-L1 (Lumbar splanchnic) - Uterus

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