Hematology Unit 1

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Author:
rororory
ID:
8679
Filename:
Hematology Unit 1
Updated:
2010-03-01 18:17:43
Tags:
Nursing
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Description:
blood and all that good stuff
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  1. Average bl volume
    5-6 quarts
  2. Plasma
    bl vol=
    water=
    disolved substances=
    • 55%
    • 90%
    • 10%
  3. serum albumin--
    serum globulin--
    fibrinogen--
    (other substances)
    • regulates bl volume
    • circulates antibodies
    • assists with clotting
    • (glucose, urea, resp gases, hormones, electrolytes)
  4. Solids: formed elements 45% of bl volume
    Erythrocytes: RBCs

    Hemoglobin (see next)
  5. Erythropoiesis
    production of RBCs in the bone marrow stimulated by poietin (growth factor produced by the kidneys with decreased O2 levels)
  6. Hemoglobin:

    norm range:
    Main ingredient in RBCs

    • :3.5-5.5 million
    • destroyed by liver and spleen--life span 120 days
  7. Hemoglobin measures:

    Norm range:
    measure grams of hgb in 100mL/blood

    : males 14-18 females 12-16
  8. Hematocrit measures:

    norm range:
    measures % of RBCs in whole blood

    : 3X the Hgb level, directly affected by the hydration status of the patient
  9. HGB 10
    HCT 46
    dehydration
  10. HGB 10
    HCT 22
    fluid overload
  11. Leukocytes:

    increased:
    decreased:

    Granulocytes:
    nongranulocytes:
    • WBCs
    • Leukocytosis
    • Leukopenia
    • G--Neutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils
    • NG--Lympocytes, monocytes
  12. Thrombocytes:
    Formed in/norm range/ lifespan
    • Platelets
    • formed in red marrow "sticky"/ 150,000-400,000/5-9 days
  13. Increased RBCs
    Sign of polycythemia or result of dehydration
  14. Decreased RBCs
    Result of anemia
  15. Increased WBCs
    Sign of infection or sign of leukemia
  16. Decreased WBCs
    Type of bone marrow suppression--stop putting out cells. result of steroids, chemotherapy, or autoimmunities
  17. Increased Plateletes
    (hypercoaguability) hyperclotting. High temps can trigger this, stress can trigger, heavy exercise can trigger
  18. Decreased platelets
    Increased risk for bleeding. bone marrow suppression.
  19. Increased hgb
    after blood transfusion
  20. Decreased Hgb
    Result of bleeding and hemorrhage
  21. Increased Hct
    fluid loss, dehydration, prolonged diuretics
  22. Decreased Hct
    Fluid overload
  23. Arterial bl gases measure:
    measure functional abilities of the lungs and exchange of O2 and CO2
  24. bleeding time
    duration of bleeding when a skin incision is made
  25. prothrombin time

    norm range:
    • time it takes for a fibrin clot to form after Ca++ and thromboplastin have been added.
    • Used to help monitor anticoag therapy

    • range: 10-11 sec/ therapeutic range:1 1/2X norm
    • eval coumadine therapy
  26. APTT/PT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time)

    norm time;
    measures when fibrin clots can be formed, but different point (3rd stage)

    • time:25-36sec
    • monitor hep therapy
  27. Sed rate (ESR)
    Help eval the course and chronic illness of disease
  28. Paul Bunnell Test
    Test for mono
  29. Schilling test
    • 24 hour urine test. used to eval pernicious anemia.
    • give inj of vit B12-test is norm if pt absorbes the B12 and circulates thru GI tract and excreted byu kidney. Abnorm= B12 not in urine--excreted in bowel
  30. A, B, AB contain A & B protein. O contains no protein

    500 mL of whole bl will increase RBCs and Hgb 15% in 24 hours
  31. o-

    o+
    universal donor

    universal recipient
  32. Whole Blood
    plasma, blood, everything. usually K+ added as preservative (important to monitor with pt with kidney--may rise)
  33. Plasma
    Fluid portion of blood. Suck off plasma part and freeze it. can give plasma w/o everything else in blood
  34. Platelets
    can freeze well--can use to help with clotting factors. can make "platelet packs" and use for pts with bleeding disorders
  35. Proteins
    can take proteins out (globulins in particular). help body with immune effects
  36. Packed cells
    cells w/o the plasma--out of whole blood. Give if vol of bl in normal, but have a need to hgb--may need O2 (packed RBC) 300-350mL
  37. Laukocytes
    WBC- can give for lifethreatening infections--may not have enough WBCs or may have immature WBCs

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