Earth Science Astronomy

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mglicc
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86802
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Earth Science Astronomy
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2011-05-21 12:59:49
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matt glickman earth science astronomy 9th grade Mr Colon
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matt glickman earth science astronomy 9th grade Mr. Colon.
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  1. What two things define a planet?
    • 1. It must orbit a star
    • 2. It must be large enough to be round
  2. Which planets have rings?
    Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus
  3. What theory explains why Saturn's rings orbit it but do not get gravitationally sucked into it?
    Roche Limit
  4. What is the term for the four outer planets?
    the JOVIAN PLANETS.
  5. What are the Jovian Planets made of?
    ICE and GAS
  6. An increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other is called the ________________________________.
    DOPPLER EFFECT
  7. What is an example of the doppler effect in astronomy?
    REDSHIFT
  8. when light seen coming from an object is proportionally increased in wavelength it is called _________________.
    REDSHIFT
  9. What is it called when a gas cloud gets compressed into solid materials.
    ACCRETION
  10. What does a star become when it can no longer sustain nuclear fusion?
    a WHITE DWARF
  11. As the an object emitting sound waves decreases, the volume and pitch of the sound ___creases
    INcreases
  12. What is the largest of the inner terrestrial planets?
    EARTH
  13. Red dwarfs have ________ energy than the sun.

    A) less
    B) more
    A) less
  14. An extremely small point of unlimited temperature and density with infinite mass and no measurable volume is called a _____________.
    SINGULARITY
  15. What are the four forces?
    GRAVITY, STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE, WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE, and ELECTROMAGNETISM
  16. What is one example of Strong Nuclear Force?
    atomic fields
  17. What is one example of Weak Nuclear Force?
    Radioactive decay
  18. List three examples of electromagnetism:
    • 1. ELECTRICITY
    • 2. LIGHT
    • 3. MAGNETIC FIELDS
  19. What does a white dwarf become when it loses all its energy?
    a BLACK DWARF
  20. What was the first thing that was established in the process of the big bang?
    the FOUR FORCES
  21. When the universe was formed, ________ matter slightly exceeded ___________ matter.

    A) anti, normal
    B) normal, anti
    B) normal, anti
  22. What happens when normal matter and anti-matter collide?
    They release 100% energy
  23. Which contains a nucleus, normal matter, or anti-matter?
    NORMAL MATTER
  24. At what temperature do protons and neutrons begin to form?
    At 10^13 degrees celsius
  25. The shorter the waves are, the ________ energy they have.

    A) more
    B) less
    A) more
  26. Which color has more energy?

    A) red
    B) blue
    B) blue
  27. Which color on the spectrum has the longest wave length?

    A) red
    B) blue
    A) red
  28. What were the two elements that the early universe mostly consisted of?
    HYDROGEN, and HELIUM
  29. How did gravity help form our galaxy?
    By making HYDROGEN and HELIUM gas coelesce to form giant clouds.
  30. When matter distorts the space time continuum, it is called __________.
    GRAVITY
  31. In what part of a star does nuclear fusion take place.
    The star's CORE.
  32. By what process do stars produce their own energy?
    NUCLEAR FUSION
  33. What phase must all stars go through?
    The MAIN SEQUENCE phase
  34. What is the opposite of gravity?
    DARK ENERGY
  35. What is proof that the universe is expanding?
    the fact that LIGHT FROM DISTANT OBJECTS IS REDSHIFTING.
  36. Stars that turn hydrogen into helium are called ____________________________.
    MAIN SEQUENCE STARS
  37. What is the luminosity of our sun?
    1
  38. How many degrees kelvin is the temperature of our sun?
    5,000 degrees kelvin
  39. The larger the nebula, the _______er the star

    A) smaller
    B) larger
    B) larger
  40. When an observer receives radiation at a wavelength which is longer than it is emitted is an example of _______________________.
    RELATIVE RADIAL MOTION along the line of sight.

  41. What phenomenon is demonstrated by the diagram above?
    a SOLAR ECLIPSE
  42. The shortening of a transmitted signal’s wavelength is called ______________.
    BLUESHIFT
  43. As the speed of an object increases, blueshift ___cresases.
    INcreases
  44. The closer the source of the waves to the observer the ______er the wavelength and frequency of the waves.

    A) shorter
    B) longer
    A) shorter
  45. What color does a star become after it is red?
    YELLOW
  46. After a star is yellow, what color does it become next?
    WHITE
  47. What color does a star become after it is white?
    BLUE
  48. As the temperature of a star's core increases, what happens to the gas inside a star? In turn, what does this make the star become?
    the gas EXPANDS, soon making the star into a RED GIANT.
  49. What happens when a white dwarf is no longer stable?
    it EXPLODES
  50. How do white dwarfs become instable?
    By sucking in matter from a larger neighboring star
  51. How do main sequence stars appear in color?
    WHITE to BLUE
  52. How many billion years old is the universe?
    15 billion years old
  53. How many light years is EARTH from the center of the milky way?
    30,000 light years.
  54. What is the most important and largest magnitude in the astronomy world?
    DISTANCE
  55. At how many miles per second do all forms of electromagnetic light travel?
    at 186,000 m/sec
  56. How many seconds does it take for electromagnetic radiation to travel from moon to earth?
    1.5 seconds
  57. About how many trillion miles do electromagnetic waves travel in one light year?
    6 trillion miles
  58. Why is the universe currently expanding at a faster rate?
    because currently in our universe, DARK ENERGY exceeds GRAVITY.
  59. Nuclear fusion ____________ energy.

    A) releases
    B) absorbs
    A) releases
  60. Iron __________ energy.

    A) releases
    B) absorbs
    B) absorbs
  61. What ends the life of a star?
    When a star reaches iron.
  62. What happens to a star when it comes in contact with iron?
    It's life ends.
  63. Why does IRON end the life of stars when it comes in contact with them?
    because it ABSORBS all the star's energy.
  64. What is the closest star to our sun/solar system?
    ALPHA CENTURI
  65. Large collections of tightly gravitationally bound stars and inter-stellar material are called ______________.
    GALAXIES
  66. What type of galaxy is the milky way?
    It is a BARRED SPIRAL
  67. What are the three main types of galaxies?
    SPIRAL GALAXIES, ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES, and IRREGULAR GALAXIES.
  68. How many trillion miles is 1 light year equal to?
    6 trillion miles.
  69. What is it called when a star explodes?
    a SUPER NOVA.
  70. How many light years across is the diameter of the milky way?
    100,000 light years across
  71. Stars with no nebula are called _____________.
    PROTOSTARS
  72. What is the largest type of galaxy?
    An ELLIPTICAL GALAXY.
  73. What is the only scenario/way in which elements heavier than iron can be produced?
    in a SUPERNOVA explosion.
  74. If a star is currently a Red Giant, what will it become next?
    a PLANETARY NEBULA
  75. What is the first phase of a star's life cycle called?
    a STELLAR NEBULA
  76. What are the two options that a Stellar Nebula has of becoming?
    it can become either an AVERAGE STAR or a MASSIVE STAR.
  77. What do MASSIVE STARS become?
    RED SUPERGIANTS
  78. What do AVERAGE STARS become?
    RED GIANTS
  79. What does a RED SUPERGIANT become next?
    a SUPERNOVA
  80. What are the two things that a SUPERNOVA can become?
    it can become either a NEUTRON STAR or a BLACK HOLE.
  81. Stellar nebula -> average star -> _______ -> ________________ -> ______________


    The text above shows the life cycle of an average star. Fill in the blanks.
    RED GIANT, PLANETARY NEBULA, WHITE DWARF.
  82. Stellar nebula -> ______________ -> SUPERNOVA -= __________ or __________

    What type of star did this become after it was a stellar nebula? What two things could it have become after it was a supernova?
    a MASSIVE STAR. Either a NEUTRON STAR or a BLACK HOLE.
  83. What makes nebulas look black?
    ABSORBTION
  84. What is the center of a galaxy called?
    a BLACK HOLE
  85. What two factors determine the color of a nebula?
    ABSORBTION and REFLECTION
  86. What do stars form when they are pushed together by gravity?
    SPIRAL ARMS
  87. As an object's distance from us increases, the velocity at which they are redshifting from us ___creases.
    INcreases.
  88. What often happens to dwarf galaxies?
    They get gravitationally sucked into larger galaxies.
  89. What happens when dwarf galaxies get gravitationally sucked into larger galaxies?
    All the stars that were once part of the DWARF GALAXY become part of the larger galaxy.
  90. The as a galaxy's distance from earth increases, its age ___creases.
    INcreases.
  91. Inter-stellar clouds of gas and dust are called ___________.
    NEBULAS
  92. What do stars convert hydrogen to?
    HELIUM
  93. When our sun converts hydrogen to helium, what happens to the hydrogen that is left over?
    It provides the earth with electromagnetic energy.
  94. What percent of the sun's action provides Earth with electromagnetic energy?
    0.03%
  95. What is the name for highly magnetized, rotating neutron stars that emit a beam of electromagnetic radiation?
    PULSARS
  96. Stars composed of dense neutrons that are around 10-15 miles in diameter are called ___________.
    PULSARS
  97. What has a gravitational force strong enough fo bend light?
    BLACK HOLES.
  98. Pulsars with exceptionally strong magnetic fields are called ____________.
    MAGNITARS
  99. Nuclear fusion releases energy, while __________ sucks up its own energy, allowing gravity to compress a star.
    IRON
  100. What are the two most important characteristics of stars?
    TEMPERATURE, and SIZE.
  101. How many degrees per hour does earth rotate?
    15 degrees/hour
  102. How wide is each time zone?
    15 degrees wide
  103. As you move _______, each 15 degree moves time an hour ahead. As you move ________, each 15 degree moves time an hour behind.

    A) north, south
    B) east, west
    C) west, east
    D) south, north
    B) east, west
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. What was basis of the once believed GEOCENTRIC THEORY?
    That the earth was the center of the universe.
  105. What did HELIOCENTRIC THEORY #1 state?
    That the SUN is the center of our universe.
  106. What theory about the center of the universe do we believe today?
    HELIOCENTRIC THEORY #2
  107. What does HELIOCENTRIC THEORY #2 state?
    That the SUN is only the center of our solar system.
  108. What two phenomenons prove that the earth rotates?
    • 1. the FOULCAULT PENDULUM
    • 2. the CORIOLIS EFFECT
  109. A sphere that hangs on a long cable which "swings" due to the earth's rotation is called a ___________________________.
    FOULCAULT PENDULUM
  110. What are the two ways in which planets move?
    • 1. by ROTATION
    • 2. by ORBIT/REVOLUTION
  111. Earth spinning on its axis is an example of the Earth's ___________.

    A) orbit
    B) rotation
    B) rotation
  112. What is Earth's rate of rotation?
    15 degrees/hour
  113. How many degrees must a planet rotate in order to complete a "day"?
    360 degrees
  114. What is the rate of Earth's ORBIT/REVOLUTION
    1 degrees/day
  115. On what day is the Earth's Aphelion?
    July 4th
  116. On what day is the Earth's Perihelion?
    January 3rd
  117. What factor make Mars the most capable to support human life?
    It's RATE OF ROTATION, which is similar to Earth's.
  118. What is it called when an object is at its closest to what it orbits?
    The PERIHELION
  119. What is it called when an object is furthest from what it orbits?
    The APIHELION
  120. What is the lowest and highest that eccentricity can be?
    0.000-1.000
  121. An eccentricity of __________ is a perfect circle.
    0.000
  122. What is the shape of an object with an eccentricity of 1.000?
    it is a LINE
  123. What determines how circular or elliptical an object will be?
    ECCENTRICITY
  124. As the distance between focai decreases, eccentricity ____creases.
    DEcreases
  125. The force of an object trying to move away is called __________.
    INERTIA.
  126. An object's eccentricity must always be expressed as a ___ digit number after a decimal point

    A) 1
    B) 5
    C) 3
    D) 4
    E) 2
    C) 3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. What shape are the orbits of the planets?
    ELLIPSES
  128. What does Kepler's 2nd law of motion state?
    That the line jointing the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times as the planet travels around the ellipse.
  129. As the distance of a planet from its Aphelion decreases, orbital velocity ___creases.
    DEcreases
  130. As the distance of a planet from its Periphelion decreases, orbital velocity ___creases
    INcreases.
  131. As eccentricity increases, the distance between two focai ____creases.
    INcreases
  132. How many focai does a perfect circle have?
    1
  133. What is the term for the long axis of an ellipse?
    the MAJOR AXIS
  134. What is the term for the short axis of an ellipse?
    the MINOR AXIS
  135. Why does orbital velocity always increase at an Aphelion and decrease at a Periphelion?
    in order to maintain consistant velocity.
  136. The larger an object's orbit, the _____er it takes for the object to complete the orbit.
    LONGer
  137. In an ellipse, what two forces must be at an equilibrium?
    GRAVITY, and INERTIA
  138. What is the formula for eccentricity?
    • Distance between the Foci
    • Distance of the Major Axis
  139. How much larger, percentage-wise does the moon appear when it is on the horizon?
    50-75% larger
  140. Why does the moon appear smaller to us when it is higher in the sky than when it is on the horizon?
    Because there are no other objects higher in the sky to compare it to.
  141. What type of tide occurs when the Earth, Moon and Sun form right angles?
    a NEAP TIDE
  142. What type of tide occurs when the Earth, Moon and sun are in line with eachother?
    a SPRING TIDE
  143. What two phases of the moon cause SPRING TIDES to occur?
    NEW MOON, and FULL MOON
  144. What two phases of the moon cause NEAP TIDES to occur?
    THIRD QUARTER MOON, and FIRST QUARTER MOON.

  145. What type of tide does the diagram above represent?
    a SPRING TIDE

  146. Which of the two diagrams above represents a neap tide?
    DIAGRAM B

  147. Which of the two diagrams above represents a spring tide?
    DIAGRAM A
  148. What is it called when the moon's gravitational force pulls on the earth?
    a TIDAL BULGE
  149. How would the Earth's rate of rotation be effected if there were no moon? How would this effect the length of our days?
    The earth would spin/rotate FASTER, and days would thus be SHORTER
  150. What is it called when the earth is directly in between the sun and the moon?
    a LUNAR ECLIPSE
  151. What is it called when the moon is directly between the Sun and the Earth?
    a SOLAR ECLIPSE
  152. The outer part of a conical shadow, cast by a celestial body, where the light from the Sun is partially blocked is called a _______________.
    PENUMBRA
  153. In an eclipse, what is the term for the shadow’s darkest, central part, where the light is totally excluded?
    the UMBRA.

  154. What type of eclipse is shown in the picture above?
    a LUNAR ECLIPSE


  155. What type of eclipse is shown in the picture above?
    a SOLAR ECLIPSE
  156. How many days does the moon take to complete one cycle of its phases?
    29.5 days
  157. What is the one month that can never have a full moon?
    FEBRUARY
  158. What phase of the moon gives earth the highest tides?
    a FULL MOON
  159. About how many days does it take for the moon to go from one phase to the next?
    3.5 days
  160. What is the significance of the number 29.5?
    It is the amount of days that it takes for the moon to go through all its phases.
  161. In what direction does the moon orbit the earth?
    In a COUNTERCLOCKWISE direction
  162. What is the phase the moon becomes after it is a NEW MOON?
    a WAXING CRESCENT
  163. What phase of the moon comes after WAXING CRESCENT?
    FIRST QUARTER
  164. What is the next thing that a FIRST QUARTER MOON becomes?
    a WAXING GIBBOUS
  165. What does a WAXING GIBBOUS become next?
    a FULL MOON
  166. What phase comes after FULL MOON?
    a WANING GIBBOUS
  167. What phase does is the moon in after it is a WANING GIBBOUS?
    a THIRD QUARTER
  168. What does a third quarter moon become?
    a NEW MOON

  169. If the sunlight is coming from the right, what phase of the moon is represented in the picture above?
    WAXING CRESCENT

  170. If the sunlight is coming from the right, what phase of the moon is represented in the picture above?
    FIRST QUARTER

  171. If the sunlight is coming from the right, what phase of the moon is represented in the picture above?
    WAXING GIBBOUS

  172. If the sunlight is coming from the right, what phase of the moon is represented in the picture above?
    WANING GIBBOUS

  173. If the sunlight is coming from the right, what phase of the moon is represented in the picture above?
    THIRD QUARTER

  174. If the sunlight is coming from the right, what phase of the moon is represented in the picture above?
    WANING CRESCENT
  175. What is moonlight?
    Sunlight reflecting off the moon and hitting earth.
  176. When going from NEW MOON to FULL MOON the moon is _________.

    A) waxing
    B) waning
    A) waxing
  177. When going from FULL MOON to NEW MOON, the sun is __________.

    A) waxing
    B) waning
    B) waning
  178. When the light moves across the moon from right to left, one knows that the moon is __________.

    A) waxing
    B) waning
    A) waxing
  179. When the light moves across the moon from left to right one knows that the moon is __________.

    A) waxing
    B) waning
    B) waning
  180. The moon always rotates and orbits from _______ to _________.

    A) left, right
    B) right, left
    B) right, left
  181. What phase must the moon be at in order for there to be a solar eclipse?
    a NEW MOON
  182. What phase must the moon be at in order for there to be a lunar eclipse?
    FULL MOON

  183. In the diagram above, which illustrates the phases of the moon, which direction is the sunlight coming from?
    the LEFT

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