Was not as expensive or high end, focused on keeping costs to a minimum so they can seel for the least amt. ("no frills")
No credit or delivery, you would pay and carry it home by yourself.
"cash and carry"
Changed grocery shopping, by getting rid of the salesman and allowed people to access the products themselves. Also rat mazes were created so one would see everything in the store before being able to leave.
Five and ten cent store
Poor Man's department store
Founded the one of the first five and dime stores. By 1900, he had 59 stores and was still growing. Known for window displays, no advertising, low priced goods, and paid low wages.
F.W. Woolworth (1879)
the idea that the goods would sell themselves based off of the type of item, price, and the presentation and he would collect the money.
Farmers and Consumption
"absentee salesmanship" in Chicago
1872: he traveled town to town and took orders, but it wasn't very efficient. He is known for mail order. Cut 40% off the cost bc he bought directly from the manufacturer.
1884 catalog: 240 pgs, 1000 items, he tried to find out what would sell and if it didnt sell he took it out of the catalog.
he also offered malt nutrine- which was a byproduct of beer that they tried to sell off as a nutrient drink.
Aaron Montgomery Ward
merging of consumerism and technology
1886: sold watches. started business in Minneapolis but later moved it to Chicago.
Richard Warren Sears
watchmaker that later teamed up with Richard Warren Sears.
Alvah Curtis Roebuck
1893: had many products
1907: $53,188,901 sales
used a catalog to advertise, deluxe editions were bound in red cloth and for the best customer the catalog was free.
1903: bought own printing company
R.W. Sears in Chicago
1 million: 1904
3 million: 1907
1894: 500 pages long
used colored images, it sold better than b&w
aka Famers' Bible
Farmers used this for reading and spelling, arithmetic, drawing, geography, hygiene
True or False: Aaron Ward Mont. started his mail order by selling watches.
Wrote about the poor working conditions in the meat packing facilities in Chicago. his book, THE JUNGLE, motivated the Am. public to demand the fed. govt. to regulate the meatpacking industry.
Progressive organization that focused on ending prostitution
American Social Hygiene Association
Won the 1912 and 1916 presidential election by promising that, if elected, he would keep the US out of any wars in Europe.
order of presidency: 1900-1920
McKinley 1900-1901 (assinated)
Wilson 1912-1916, 1916-1920
one of the things that pushed the US into entering WWI on the side of the Allies against the Germans. In it, the German Foreign Secretary tried to convince the Mexican government to declare war against the US. It was intercepted and leaked to the media.
The Army Alpha test was given to those who were literate in?
What did R.W. Sears sale when he was involved in "absentee salesmanship"?
in the film clip about the recruitment of African Americans to fight in the war in Europe one of the narrators made it clear that the Brits fighting did not respect them. Even the germans did not respect them. What did they often refers them as?
True or False: Progressives believed that capitalism was morally bankrupt and needed to be replaced with a new ideology.
Where was Jane adam's Hull House located?
True or False: Associationalism was considered to be too unamerican bc it created distinct groups in society.
These people were often corrupt, but recieved support from voters because they were able to cut through red tape and get things done, such as better roads, sewage and water systems, etc. They were often mayors.
big city political bosses
When did the fighting of WWI start?
The Sussex Pledge was given by which country?
Famous designer and parisians developed this perfume as a response to the odor coming from the front lines 90 miles from Paris.
True or False: Army's Beta test was for those soldiers who could speak English and were literate.
True or False: Airplane played a critical role in WWI. Some even claimed it was the most important tool in a country's arsenal of weapons.
This Attorney general of the US led a campaign to stamp out what he believed was a communist threat to overthrow the US government.
A. Mitchell Palmer
In this city, in Jan 1919, a massive strike by dockworkers and shipworkers sent shockwaves through the nation. It convinced many that there was truly a communist conspiracy.
He was appointed by A. Mitchell Palmer to head the antiradicalism division of the Justive Dept. Later he became head of the newly created FBI.
J. Edgar Hoover
Publicity stunt by the US govt to demonstrate that they were ridding the country of communists.
true or false: Sacco and Vanzetti were known as patriotic prisioners.
true or false: 19th amendment outlawed possession, manufacture, and distribution of alcohol.
False, its the 18th amendment
Federal agency that worked to find ways to utilize he innovations and new technologies developed during the war.
NRC, National research council
Created laws that forbid the use of alcohol in the U.S.
Volstead Act of 1920
Boxer that defended his title in the "fight of the Century" in 1910 by knocking out James Jeffries in the 15th round.
Progressivism (7 main points)
1. Concern ab industrialization
2. Optimistic ab human nature
3. Willing to intervene
4. Prefer voluntary means
5. Combination of movements
6, IMpact on Americans
7. Reformers: radical in makes changes but done within the system
Progressives insisted on:
Stricter regulation of business, humanitarian theme, reform govt, social control (dark side)
Wrote Looking Backward
Wrote Theory of the Leisure Class
believed in Public schools and that all children were born with a blank slate
2 types of reformers?
Moral and social engineer
used by moral reformers to address the problem of poverty
Opened the Hull House 1889 in Chicago
what did Jane Addams do?
1. mediate neighborhood squabbles
3. recreational/athletic programs
4. employment bureau
5. Day nursery
7. legal Aid
8. healthcare/ hospitals
9. Women's colleges
moral reformers def. of Americanize?
gave lessons to read and write and to be more American through middle class
Movie installments that people were trying to robs for nickels
women's groups agst. drinking
prohibition and anti saloon league
moral reformers completely closed the door on immigrants
Immigration restriction league
name the 4 muckrakers
Jacob Riis(How the Other Half Lives), Lincoln Steffens (shame of the City), Upton Sinclair(The Jungle), Ida Tarbell(McClures and Colliers, both are women's magazines)
Reformer the used science to back it up, started specialization, associationalism, and wanted to shape a better environment
Social Engineer reformer
Known for cumbersome machinery, physical expansion, immigration diversity, bureacracy, normally a nayor
Under which administration was the Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 passed?
Was the Mayor of Chicago from 1955 to 1976 and was considered the last of the big city political bosses.
name big city poli. bosses
Boss Tweed- NYC
Big Jim Pendergast- Kansas City
Abraham Ruef: San francisco
In machine politics, during off election time they go around the community to see how everyones doing and their job was to accommodate communities request.
Create an equilibrui,, fed. govt. oversees, needs fed. regulation, big business is good
Fed. govt gets involved, create level playing field so everyone has the same opportunities, control business, big businesses are bad
known for being conservative, but progressive, committed to action, "bully to pulpit"
Roosevelt prosecutes lg businesses for trying to control large commodities
two acts that gave Roosevelt more authority
Hepburn Act(1906) and Elkins Act (1910)
prosecute bad business
Bureau of Corporations 1903
Child labor law the limited age
Beveridge Act 1906
Both acts were directly resulted from THE JUNGLE
Food and Drug Act and the Meat inspection Act (1906)
Square Deal, regulate big business, govt. intervention, conservation and efficiency
largest president (332lbs) , picked by Roosevelt, known for rule of law
Congress makes law, supreme interprets, exec enforces it and interprets it
"rule of law"
Reduce tariffs, banking/ccurrency, antitrust, "one really responsible man in jail", foreign relations
If you're not at war, you have the right to conduct trade with another country that is also not at wat, you can trade with people at war as long as it wasn't military goods
Germans called the U-boats
allied tactic that got around international Law
no warning, lots of americans killed, americans were mad bc of Germans, But the germans promised to follow rules of humanity
known as "the great War", people wanted a utopia but it doesn't happen
Ernest Hemmingway, Americans after the war who are unsure of what to do
Germany, Austria-hungary, ottoman empire
great britain, russia, france
Vickers MK 1 belt fed and Rapid Fire
Types of poison gas
Tear, mustard, phosgene, chlorine
people lived in them, they were very basic, had problems with water, under bombardment, dead bodies would sit in there for a few days, human waste
Rotting feet from not keep them clean and dry
caused psychological problems, PTSD: happened from hiding in the trench underground and the shock from the bomb would travel through the ground
when was the first SAT?
ends the war
Treaty of Versailles
self government, disarmament, low reparations, league of nations, no secret treaties, free trade, and right to travel
who was the treaty opposed by?
Isolationists, reservationisnts, republicans
"new age", "modern man", "modernity"
Image of 1920s
African Americans moving out of the south but it only caused more racial tension bc they were fighting over housing and jobs
The Great Migration
Economy in slump, attitude during war, labor disputes
red scare 1919-1921
labor strikes, seattle, 35000 shipworkers
34 bombs in the US Mail
Nativist, Immigrant conspiracy, in june 19191 a bomb was delivered to him
A. Mitchell Palmer
Nov. 1919, series of raids, scooping up thousands of illegal immigrants and putting them in jail
Jan. 1920, arrested 6000 people, patriotic prisoners refused to share cells with communists
New Yr's Raids
Accused of murdering shop owner, anarchists, legal lynching, death row 6 yrs
Sacco and Vanzetti
Leader of KKK
D.C. Stevenson 1925
teaches evolution in 1925 dayton, tn
John thomas scopes
at baylor university, taught evolution at a baptist university
Rev. J. Frank Norris
Concerned about evolution being taught in schools
Rev. T.T. Martin
Anti evolution bill in Mississippi
signs of economic trouble
overproduction, coal mining, textiles, railroads
Oct. 24, 1929, 9% value if stock market lost in one day
Oct. 28, 1929, 13% dropped
oct. 29th, 1929, 12% drop
By 1932, this percentage of stock market value has been lost?
Unemployment rate in 1929?
26% with 17,000,000 unemployed
was the stock market crash the cause of the Great Depression?
weaknesses of American Economy
poor distribution f income, bad corporate structure, weak banking structure, foreign loans to weak nations, faulty economic intelligence, cyclical downturn, overcaptialization, international scale
banks lost in the depression?
1929: 600-700 banks close
1930: 1500 close
1931: 2300 close
in 1932, people wages are cut by what percentage since 1929?
the immigrant mother
traveled across the west from oklahoma trying to get jobs
Where did the battle of Blair mountain occur?
He was in the Atlanta Federal Prison when he ran for President in 1920.