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What are the 5 levels of living matter, in order?
Breakdown of organic matter, usually with release of energy
Buildup of organic matter, usually requiring energy
Name the two types of Metabolism
What does the dorsal body cavity house?
What does the ventral body cavity house?
- Thoracic (Lungs and Mediastinum) Cavity
- Abdominopelvic (Heart, Aorta, Vena Cava, and soft tiseus) Cavity
What separtes the Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities?
The Abdominopelvic Cavity is subdivided into these two cavities?
- Abdominal (Peritoneal Cavity - Stomach, Spleen, Liver, Large & Small Intestines, etc) [Retroperitoneal Cavity contains both Kidneys]
- Pelvic (Bladder, Femal reproductive organs (uterus, ovaries, tubes)
This lines the outside of the Lung, it is not the part of the respiratory system
This covers the abdominal organs
What is another word for Pleural Effusion?
Made from simple sugars, sometimes referred to as polysaccharides or starches
Includes steriods, waxes, and fats. Triglycerides
Made from Amino Acids. There are a total of 20 amino acids in the human body. These are amino acids not made up by the body, but instead have to be obtained by consumption of meat. Amino Acids are made from nucleic acids (DNA)
What is the begining process of all Western Diseases?
What is the function of the Paranasal Sinus?
- Warms the air
- Humidify/Moisten the inhaled air
- Acts as a filter
Cartilaginous structure connecting the pharynx and trachea at the level of cervical vertebrae. It is composed of connective tissue containing 9 pieces of cartilage shaped like a box.
The largest cartilage of the larynx; it is visible and palpable above the hyoid boine anteriorly
Thyroid Cartilage (Adam's Apple)
Shaped like a signet ring, connects the larynx and trachea
Leaf-shaped lid at the entrance to the larynx. It closes and covers the larynx when food is being swallowed from the pharynx to the esophagus.
What is another term for Chemical Pneumonia
The sac between the visceral and parietal pleura which is generally lined with fluid
When air is introduced into the pleural space (during chest trauma from motor vehicle accident or MVA, or puncture of thoracic cavity as with an acupuncutre needle), a pleural cavity is created and the lung collapses (partially or totally)
Contractions occur in a set of respiratory muscles between the ribs, called external intercostals muscles.
The external intercostals and diaphragm relax
The measuring of breath
What monitors CO2 levels of the blood?
Respiratory Control Center
How long can one hold his breath?
Until CO2 gets to critical levels
Where does O2 and CO2 perform gas exchange?
How much of a role (in percent) does the diaphragm play in respiration? External Intercostals?
- Diaphragm 90%
- External Intercostals 10%
Has a biconcave shape
The only cell in the body without a nucleus
Performs gas exchange
Red Blood Cell
What are the most common Respiratory Conditions (Hyperactive Airway Disease)?
- Asthma - the inability to exhale (bronchospasm) (occurs during childhood --> early adulthood)
- COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - lose the abiltiy of elastic recoil (occurs during age>= 60 years)
- Chronic Bronchitis - inpairment of mucocilliary escalator - persistant cough, esp. in smokers (occurs during age >= 40-50 years)
What are the 3 types of Muscles in the body?
- Skeletal (voluntary) striated
- Smooth (involuntary - autonomic nervous system control) deep to body
- Cardiac (looks like skeletal, acts like smooth)
What are the causes of bronchospasms?
Environmental Pollution (i.e. Dust Mites, Pollen, Animal products(dander, feces, saliva, urine), cigarette smoke(including second-hand smoke)
What is the difference between COPD and Emphysema?
- COPD - Diagnosed clinically
- Emphysema - Diagnosed by Biopsy
What are the 3 steps of the process of a Nephron?
- Filtration - non-selective process
- General Reabsorption
- Tubular Secretion (10% of the total process)
A collecting duct
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
This hormone acts primarily on the distal tubules of a nephron
What is the function of the Kidney?
- Urine Production
- Produce Erythropoietin (tells bone marrow to produce RBC's)
- Activates vitamin D (which increases intestinal absorption fo CA2+
What ions are eliminated in urine?
What are the principle solutes in normal urine?
- K+ (potassium)
- H+ (acids)
- Urobilinogen (from bile)
An analysis of the volume and physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine
This is responsible for the pigment of urine and feces
What are common conditions (bad things) that can be found in a urinalysis?
- Diabetes - ketones/glucose not well controlled
- Gall Stones - elevated bilirubin
- Kidney Disease - leaking Albumins (proteins); moderate: urinating Albumins
- UTI - WBC & RBC
What are four ways to lose body fluid?
Movement of water from Low to High solute concentration
What is the most common extra-cellular ion?
What are some of the common causes of edema?
- Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) - Blood clot (unilateral edema)
- Enlarging Cancer Mass (unilateral)
- Congestive Heart Failure (pump failure) - systematic problem (bilateral)