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What is phonology? (Skill 1.1)
The way in which speech sounds form patterns. Based on the theory that every native speaker uncounsciously retains teh sound structure of that language and is more concerned with the sounds than with the physical process or creating those sounds.
What are the components of phonology? (Skill 1.1)
Phonemes, pitch, and stress.
What are phonemes? (Skill 1.1)
The smallest units of sound that affect meaning, i.e., that distinguish two words. In English 44 speech sounds but only 26 letters.
Phoneme suggestion: (Skill 1.1)
Focusing on phonemes to provide pronunciation practice allows students to have fun while they learn to recognize and say sounds - tan, man, fan, ran, etc.
What is pitch? (Skill 1.1)
Determines the context or meaning of words or series of words. (presented as a question or a statement ... intonations rise or fall)
What is stress? (Skill 1.1)
Stress can occur at a word or sentence level. Stresses on different syllables can actually modify a words meaning.
What is phonographemics? (Skill 1.1)
Refers to the study of letters and letter combinations. These should be introduced long after spoken English.
What are Homonyms? (Skill 1.1)
Word forms that have two or more meanings. (can - to be able//can - a container)
What are homographs? (Skill 1.1)
Two or more that have the same spelling or pronunciation but different meanings (stalk - part of a plant//stalk - follow)
What are homophones? (Skill 1.1)
Two or more words that have the same pronunciation but different meanings and spelling (wood/would)
What are heteronyms? (Skill 1.1)
Two or more words that have the same spelling but a different pronunciation and meaning (Polish/polish)
What is a digraph? (Skill 1.2)
Any two letters that form a single sound, such as /ph/ in phone or /ea/ in read.
What is a diphthong? (Skill 1.2)
Two vowels combine to form a sound that slides from one to the other, such as /oy/ in boy or /ou/ in house.
What is the schwa sound? (Skill 1.2)
Is made by every vowel in English: /a/ as in about, /e/ as in the.
Suggestion - (Skill 1.2)
In teaching beginning reading to a native speaker, it is common to begin with the short vowel sounds - /a/ is for apple, /e/ is for elephant.
Suggestion - (Skill 1.2)
To improve their pronunciation, ELL need to work on ... pronunciation, intonation, and stress.
Suggestion - (Skill 1.2)
To work on pronunciation, ELLs can find a dictionary and study its phonetic alphabet.
Suggestion - (Skill 1.2)
Teaching intonation is important because one's message may be misconstrued if the speaker uses an incorrect intonation patter (rising/falling).
Suggestion - (Skill 1.2)
Stress means accent.
What is morphology? (Skill 1.3)
Refers to the process of how the words of a language are formed to create meaningful messages.
What is morphemic analysis? (Skill 1.3)
Requires breaking a word down into its component parts to determine its meaning.
What is a morpheme? (Skill 1.3)
The smallest unit of a language system that has meaning. (root word, prefix, suffix)
A root word or base word is ... (Skill 1.3)
the key to understanding a word, because this is where the actual meaning is determined.
A prefix acts ... (Skill 1.3)
as a syllable, which appears in front of the root or base word and can alter the meaning of the root or base word.
A suffix is ... (Skill 1.3)
a letter or letters, which are added to the end of the word and can alter the original tense or meaning of the root or base word.
How to apply morhemic analysis to a word. (Skill 1.4)
- 1. Choose a root or base word such as kind.
- 2. Create as many new words as possible by changing the prefix and suffix.
- 3. New words would include unkind, kindness, mankind, and kindly.
To develop morphemic analysis skills ... (Skill 1.4)
practice should include identifying roots, prefixes, and suffixes, as well as using morphemic knowledge to form new words.
Phonological skills ... (Skill 1.5)
decoding skills, recognizing and creating rhymes, syllabicate, and phonemics ... explicity and systematically teaching these skills.
Structural analysis would include ... (Skill 1.5)
morphological analysis of the base word, prefixes, and suffixes.
Strategies for identifying and addressing ELL difficulties ... (Skill 1.6)
- Contrastive analysis - involves comparing and contrasting the linguistic features of students' primary language and English.
- - emphasis of context clues
- - analysis of the word structure
- - apposition
Evaluate ELD programs for phonology and morphology - Alderson (1992) - (Skill 1.7)
- What is the purpose of the activity?
- Who is the activity for?
- Who is going to evaluate the activity?
- What kind of content is being taught?
- What methodology will be used - visual, aural, both?
- When will the lesson be taught, before, during, after reading/spelling instruction?
Garinger (2002) proposed composite evaluation checklist ... (Skill 1.7)
- A. Practical considerations
- - Value/availability (locally, cost)
- - Layout/physical characteristics (interesting, clear)
- - Cultural Component (target culture content, free of stereotypes)
- B. Language-related considerations
- - Skills (integrate skills well)
- - Language (authentic, variety)
- - Exercises (balance, meaningful)
- - User definition (well defined)
Syntax involves ... (Skill 2.1)
the order in which words are arranged to create meaning. Also refers to the rules for creating correct sentence patterns.
Language acquisition is (Skill 2.1)
the process of second-language acquisition includes forming generalizations about the new language and internalizing its rules.
Stages of language acquisition (Skill 2.1)
- 1. Single words
- 2. S-V-O structure
- 3. Wh-fronting; Do fronting; Adverb fronting; Negative fronting
- 4. Y/N inversion Copula (linking v) inversion; Particle shift
- 5. Do second; Auxiliary second; Negative do second
- 6. Cancel inversion
Suggestion - (Skill 2.2)
ELL students need to be exposed to authentic, natural English in the classroom setting as well as outside the classroom.
Many studies have found ... (Skill 2.3)
that cognitive and academic development in the first language has an extremely important and positive effect on second- language learning (Bialystok 1991; Collier 1989, 1992; Garcia 1994; Genesee 1987, 1994; Thomas and Collier, 1995)
Semantics - (Skill 2.4)
emcompass the meaning of individual words as well as combinations of words.
Teaching with a specific context helps (Skill 2.4)
students to understand the meaning of words and sentences.
Using words in a variety of contexts helps (Skill 2.4)
students reach deeper understanding of the words.
Words with multiple meanings ... (Skill 2.5)
should be studied in context, and it should be pointed out that words do have multiple meanings.
False cognates ... (Skill 2.5)
can be addressed as they come up by pointing out that not all apparent cognates really are cognates.
Idiom, particularly those that cannot be translated literally, ... (Skill 2.5)
present a particular challenge to ELLs.
Syntactic and semantic suggestions ... (Skill 2.6)
syntactic and semantic context clues must be directly taught.
Games that teach syntactic and semantic clues ... (Skill 2.6)
- 1. Cuisiniere rods ... colors that represent parts of speach, students fill in the words.
- 2. Shunting words ... difficult text, teacher types in computer, removing spaces and punctuation, students try to reconstruct.
- 3. Expand sentences ... Draw picture. Start simple sentence, each successive student adds to it.
Syntax ... (Skill 2.7)
the order in which words are arranged to create meaning
Semantics .. (Skill 2.7)
the meanings of individual words, as well as combinations of words
Idioms ... (Skill 2.7)
figures of speech where the literal meaning is not the inteded meaning.
Perfunctory speech ... (Skill 2.7)
"empty language" - has little meaning but is important in social exchanges
Halliday (1985), classified language into the following functional categories ... (Skill 3.1)
- 1. Instrumental - language as a means of satisfying needs or acquiring things
- 2. Regulatory - used to control the behavior, feelings, or attitudes of others, role plays
- 3. Interactional - social interaction, cooperative group
- 4. Personal - expressions of individuality, pride, sharing, telling
- 5. Heuristic - asking and seeking knowledge, how something works
- 6. Imaginative - making up stories and poems
- 7. Informative - sharing information, descriptions
- 8. Divertive - jokes, puns, riddles
Language structures appropriate to specific academic language functions ... (Skill 3.2)
- 1. Describing - has all the colors of the rainbow
- 2. Defining - this word means, etc
- 3. Explaining - his actions mean that ..
- 4. Comparing - this is similar to an event
- 5. Contrasting - Today, this could mean that ...
- 6. Making predictions - I think that
- 7. Persuading - I know what you mean, but I believe that ..
Sociolinguistics - (Skill 3.2)
is the study of how social conditions influence the use of language. Social factors such as ethnicity, religion, gender, status, age, and education.
Historical variation - (Skill 3.3)
may occur in the sound system, the grammar, or the lexicon. Change can be gradual or abrupt.
Social language vs. Academic language (Skill 3.3)
- SL is generally used with peers, in relaxed and informal contexts.
- AL is often used to convey scholarly concepts with concern for accuracy, objectivity, and dispassionate comment.
Language is influenced by ... (Skill 3.3)
the geopgraphy of the land in which it is spoken.
Fact ... (Skill 3.3)
Wars have also added words to our language.
Fact ... (Skill 3.3)
Contemporary culture changes language significantly.
Fact ... (Skill 3.3)
Political rhetoric also influences language.
Fact .. (Skill 3.3)
Technology and science may have changed language more than any other factor in the past century (500,000 tech/scientific words have been added).
Fact ... (Skill 3.3)
Text messaging has created a kind of shorthand
Fact ... (Skill 3.3)
Work-related language (jargon) is often different from the language of the general public.
Register refers (Skill 3.4)
to a choice of language for a particular discourse.
British linguist Halliday defined register as 3 factors leading to variations in the formality between the participants ...
- 1. field of discourse - reference to the subject matter being discussed.
- 2. mode of discourse - speaking or writing
- 3. manner of discourse - a reference to the social relations between the participants
Strategies for addressing difficulties ELs have in regional dialects ... (Skill 3.5)
- 1. Direct instruction
- 2. Register recognition
Respecting home language ... (Skill 3.6)
- 1. Put similar phrases with different registers side by side and discuss when and where each would be appropriate.
- 2. Learn and teach correct pronunciation of names
BICS vs. CALP... (Skill 3.7)
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills - learners must acquire to function in social situations, are generally less demanding than Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency, and are generally acquired earlier.
CUP ... (Skill 3.7)
Common Underlying Proficiency - these are skills, ideas, and concepts that learners can transfer from their first language to their English learning.
Oral conversations are ... (Skill 4.1)
generally spontaneous, and the participants make up their speech as they interact with each other.
Written discourse is ... (Skill 4.1)
more precise, produced over a longer time span and is subject to reflection, correction, and revision.
Oral discourse analysis is ... (Skill 4.2)
often referred to as conversational analysis, the emphasis is on the behavior of the participants and social constraints such as politeness and face-saving phenomena.
Written discourse is ... (Skill 4.2)
generally analyzed for how the text hangs together.
Cohesion is ... (Skill 4.2)
the "surface" characteristics of the semantic relationships between the elements of the text.
Coherence is ... (Skill 4.2)
the deeper meaning of the logical elements of the text.
Oral language structures are ... (Skill 4.3)
those used in greetings, the discourse itself, and endings.
CALP is ... (Skill 4.3)
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency refers to the formal language skills needed for successful academic learning - listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Cummins (1979) estimated that it takes five years or more to acquire CALP. Peregoy and Boyle, 2008, suggest even longer.
Rabinowitz and Chi (1987) ... (Skill 4.4)
reading strategies must be consciously applied. Cognitive strategies are activities such as rehearsal, elaboration and inference.
Flesch-Kincaid and Flesh Reading Ease scores ... (Skill 4.4)
scales that measure reading difficulty. Other are Lexile score, evaluate specific skills a student must have to understand a text and thus avoid the stigma of classifying a student as below grade level.
ELs communicative competence ... (Skill 4.5)
- 1. Discussion activities - describing pictures, picture differences, solving a problem
- 2. Drama activities - creative drama, role-plays and skits
Discourse competence is ... (Skill 4.6)
- defined as internalized funtional knowledge of the elements and structure of a language
- 1. textual competence - the ability to create a monologue, such as a report or speech
- 2. interactional competence - the ability to understand and respond to communication from others
Pragmatic features ... (Skill 5.1)
communication in a culture involves not only the language but also gestures, facial expressions, and body stance.
Factors affecting speakers'/writers' choice of pragmatic features ... (Skill 5.3)
- - Comparing customs of various cultures (greet with kiss on cheeks)
- - politics also affects the pragmatics of different situations
- - society imposes many rules that are unconsciously observed by its members
Suggestion ... (Skill 5.4)
Pragmatics involving nonverbal cues and body language can be confusing
Suggestion ... (Skill 5.4)
Nonverbal communication are gestures and using acceptable tone, volume, stress, and intonation in different social settings.
Pragmatics is ... (Skill 5.5
the study of how context affects the interpretation of language.
Examples of nonverbal pragmatic conventions ... (Skill 5.5)
Gestures, appropriate distance between speakers, seating arrangements, nodding and shaking of the head, signs, and touch.
In the ESL classroom, pragmatics can be illustrated and practiced by ... (Skill 5.5)
repeating the same situation in different contexts.
Effective ELD program is ... (Skill 5.6)
- whether activities provide opportunities for the students to interact with non-English Learners (ordering food, Dr. office,).
- Practice speaking on phone, listen to movie times for information.
Sociolinguistic competence results when ... (Skill 5.6)
a learner not only knows the correct question or response, but is able to produce that question or response in the appropriate situation. Therefore, an effective program has to scaffold that process, providing opportunities for increased interaction with the larger world.
Theories of language acquisition ... (Skill 6.1)
- Chomsky - Language acquisition device (LAD)
- Piaget - Cognitive Constructivism
- Vygotsky - Social Contructivism and Language
- Brain Research - Error analysis, interlanguage, developmental patterns
Chomsky ... (Skill 6.1)
shows that children's language development is much more complex than what is proposed by behaviorist theory.
Piaget ... (Skill 6.1)
central interest was children's cognitive development ... language does not contribute to the development of thinking. He believes that cognitive development precedes language development.
Vygotsky's central focus is ... (Skill 6.1)
the relationship between the development of thought and language. He views language first as social communication, which gradually promotes both language itself and cognition.
Brain research has shown ... (Skill 6.1)
that the single most important factor affecting language acquisition is the onset of puberty. Before puberty, a person uses one area of the brain for language learning; after puberty, a different area of the brain is used. A person who begins to learn a second language after the onset of puberty will likely find langage learning more difficult and depend more on repetition.
Analyzing aspects of the language to be acquired ... (Skill 6.1)
- - Error analysis - recognizing patterns of errors
- - Interlanguage - analyzing which aspects of the target language are universal
- - Developmental patterns - the order in which feature of a language are acquired and the sequence in which a specific feature is acquired
Cognitive strategies ... (Skill 6.2)
- - Practicing - constant repetition, help promote the learner's grasp of the language
- - Receiving and sending message - "need to know" vs. "nice to know"
- - Analyzing and reasoning - use general rules to understand meaning then work into specifics
- - Creating structure for input and output - taking meaningful notes, use highlighters
Socioaffective Strategies ... (Skill 6.2)
those that help the learner control the emotions and attitudes and hinder progress in learning the second language
3 Sets of Affective Strategies ... (Skill 6.2)
- - lowering your anxiety - meditating, breathing, relaxing
- - encouraging yourself - self-affirmations, rewards
- - taking your emotional temperature - listen to body signals
Social strategies, ACE ... (Skill 6.2)
- - Asking questions
- - Cooperating with others
- - Emphathizing with others
Definition L1 and L2 ... (Skill 6.3)
- L1 - acquired language
- L2 - learned language
Steps to language acquizition ... (Skill 6.3)
- Silent period - 500 words, uncomfortable producing speech
- Private speech - 1000 words, speaks 1 to 2 word phrases
- Lexical chunks - 3000 words, short phrases and sentences
- Formulaic speech - 6000 words, complex statements, state opinions
- Experimental or simplified speech - level of fluency, semantic and grammar generalizations
English Language Development (ELD) and English as a Second Language (ESL) ... three types ... (Skill 7.1)
- - Grammar-based ESL - teaches about the language
- - Communication-based ESL - emphasizes using the language in meaningful contexts
- - Content-based ESL - emphasis on language, but with graded introduction to content areas, vocabulary, and basic concepts.
Structured English immersion ... (Skill 7.1)
ELLs are pulled out for structured instruction in English so that subject matter is comprehensible.
Submersion with primary language support ... (Skill 7.1)
In small groups, the ELLs are tutored by reviewing the content areas in their primary language.
Canadian French immersion (language-majority students) ... (Skill 7.1)
the goal is bilingualism in French (L2) and English (L1)
Indigenous language immersion (such as Navajo) ... (Skill 7.1)
this approach supports endangered minority languages and develops academic skills in minority language and culture as well as in the English language and predominant culture.
Concept ... (Skill 7.2)
Language learners develop cognitive adn social strategies to help them cope with the uncertainties of learning a second language.
Cognitive/Social Strategies ... (Skill 7.2)
- - Repetition, elaboration, appeals for assistance, requests for clarification - assurance from an adult, peer, or teacher is an emotional need.
- - Formulaic expressions - establish social discourse but not necessarily
- - Role-play - to internalize language and linguistic structure
Four langauge skills ... (Skill 7.3)
- 1. interactive
- 2. improving the receptive skills
- 3. reading imporves the productive
- 4. expressive skills of speaking and writing
Prior knowledge ... (Skill 8.1)
schemata (prior knowledge) students have when beginning a new foreign language is a valuable asset to be exploited in their language
Cognitive/Learning Styles (Willing, 1988)... (Skill 8.1)
Cognitive, affective, and psychological behaviors ...
Willing, 1988 ... four main learning styles ... (Skill 8.1)
- 1. concrete learning style - people oriented, emotional and spontanteous
- 2. Analytica learning style - object oriented, with tthe capacity for making connections and inferences
- 3. Communicative learning style - autonomous, prefers social learning, likes making decisions
- 4. Authority-oriented learning learning style - defers to the teacher, does not enjoy learning by discovery, intolerant of facts that do not fit
Reid 1987 identified four perceptual learning tendencies ... (Skill 8.1)
- 1. visual learning - learning mainly from seeing words in books
- 2. auditory learning - learning by hearing words spoken
- 3. kinesthetic learning - learning by experience, involved physically
- 4. tactile learning - hands-on-learning
Positive and Negative Language Transfer (Skill 8.1)
- L1 refers to the effect the native tongue has on the language being acquired
- Negative - many errors when using the new language
- Positive - similar structure
Age, according to Ellis 1985, (Skill 8.1)
- age does not affect teh "route" of second-language acquisition (SLA).
- Rate is fastest with teens (Snow and Hoefnagel, 1978)
Krashen 1982 disagrees (Skill 8.1)
believing instead that SLA is related to the amount of comprehensible input and that younger learners are more open emotionally to SLA
Krashen 1982 believes (Skill 8.1)
that adolescents and adults probably have greater access to comprehensible input than children and that this is the real causative variable, rather than age itself
Shumm 2006, for further evaluation of reading-level characteristics (Skill 8.1)
- - L1 writing system logographic as Arabic, Sllabic as Cherokee, or Alphabetic as English
- - How does L1 syntax compare with the L2 syntax
- - Spelling patterns phonetic?
- - Students read l-r or t-b?
- - Are there true cognates
- - Are discourse or writing patterns similar?
- - L1 writing circular?
Point - (Skill 8.2)
Assessing a student's language proficiency level and prior knowledge is of critical importance - to determine ELLs strengths/weakness so appropriate types and levels of teaching take place
Point - (Skill 8.2)
Scaffolding language tasks - consists of demonstrating, guiding, and teaching in a step-by-step process so that ELLs are able to communicate effectively and develop their language skills (Cazden 1983
Tompkins 2006 - 5 levels of scaffolding - (Skill 8.2)
- 1. Modeling - instructor models orally
- 2. Shared - ELLs use their pooled knowledge of the project
- 3. Interactive - ELLs to question him/her on points that need clarification
- 4. Guided - well-posed questions, clues, reminders, and examples are all ways of guiding the ELL toward the goal
- 5. Independent levels - achieves independence and no longer needs educational scaffolding
Idea (Skill 8.2)
Learners receive input from their parents, their community, TV, the teacher, the textbook, readers, etc
Krashen 1981, 1982, 1985 (Skill 8.2)
believes that humans acquire language in only one way, receiving comprehensible input
Dulay and Burt 1974, Schmidt and Frota 1986 (Skill 8.2)
frequency in which certain items occur in the target language appears to contribut to output
Monitoring students' progress (Skill 8.2)
is an ongoing, continuous process in chich the students language and content area learning is evaluated / without proper monitoring, students are at risk of long-term failure of instruction
Providing constructive feedback (Skill 8.2)
is a key element in the success of all students
ELLs must have prior background knowledge (Skill 8.2)
before they are able to develop enough language to succeed in content classrooms
Affective domain (Skill 9.1)
refers to the range of feelings and emotions in human behavior that affects how a second language is acquired
Motivation, Gardner and Lambert, 1972, (Skill 9.1)
- 1. Instrumental motivation - acquiring a second language for a specific reason such as a job
- 2. Integrative motivation - acquiring a second language to fulfill a wish to communicate within a different culture
Inhibition (Skill 9.1)
ELLs may be inhibited about trying to say things in their target language-English
Attitudes (Skill 9.1)
typically evolve from internalized feelings about oneself and one's ability to learn a language
Anxiety (Skill 9.1)
is inherent in second-language learning
Self-esteem (Skill 9.1)
learning a second language puts learners in a vulnerable frame of mind.
Teachers' expectations (Skill 9.1)
learning objectives and goals should be high for all students including ELLs
Classroom culture (Skill 9.1)
the teacher is responsible for establishing an effective classroom community whre all students feel safe, are responsible and respectful, and work cooperatively with their classmates
Lowering affective filters (Krashen) (Skill 9.2)
identified three areas in which affective filters may inhibit language learning (anxiety, motivation, and self-confidence)
Constructive feedback, Ur 1996 defines feedback (Skill 9.2)
as "information given to the learner about his or her performance of a learning task, usually with the objective of improving this performance"
Feedback has two main aspects (Skill 9.2)
assessment and correction
Different theories look at mistakes in different ways (Skill 9.2)
- * audio-lingualism - few mistakes, controlled steps
- * interlanguage - mistakes are important factor in language learning
- * communicative approach - not all msitakes need to be corrected
- * monitor theory - correction does not lead to language acquisition
Inclusive Classroom Environment (Skill 9.2)
assures the teacher and the students that tehy are respected and connected to the other members of the classroom
Hint (Skill 9.2)
Value and validate students' home cultures and languages
Acculturation patterns (Skill 10.1)
is the process of becoming accustomed to the customs, language, practices, and environment of a new culture.
Transculturation (Skill 10.1)
is acculturation by an individual, while acculturation is the same process for a large group
Accommodation theory (Skill 10.1)
- -emerged 1970s
- -explanation of the motivations underlying, and the consequences of, adapting our language and communication patterns to others
Biculturalism (Skill 10.1)
often exists in countries with a history of national or ethnic conflict when neither side has obtained a complete victory
Value systems (Skill 10.1)
different cultures have different value systems
Prior educational experiences (Skill 10.1)
in schools in the U.S., students are expected to sit quietly at their desks, etc. others may not
School culture and organization (Skill 10.1)
U.S. schools are organized around middle-class European-American experiences
Differential status of the primary language or dialect and the target language (Skill 10.1)
bilingualism is the use of two languages by an individual
Language planning and policies (Skill 10.1)
Tollefsen 1991, claims that language policies are ideological, with the purpose of sustaining existing power relationships
Creating a culturally and linguistically inclusive classroom and school environment (Skill 10.2)
teachers play a pivotal role in creating a classroom environment that is culturally and linguistically inclusive
Providing culturally and linguistically inclusive instruction (Skill 10.2)
teachers can highlight the music, food, and art of different culture in the classroom
Respecting linguistic and cultural differences (Skill 10.2)
social rules for communication are different amond the various cultures of society
Promoting family and community involvement (Skill 10.2)
often schools, parents, grandparents, and other people involved in children's lives want to take an active role in the educational process
Evaluating program organization (Collier and Thomas 1999-2000) five organizing principles that encourage high academic standards for ELLs
- 1. Facilitate learning through joint, productive activities among teachers and students
- 2. Develop students' competence in th language and literacy of instruction throughout all instructional activities
- 3. Contextualize teaching and curriculum in the experiences and life skills of home and community
- 4. Challenge students toward cognitive complexity
- 5. Engage students through dialog, especially in instructional conversation