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Chapter 1 flashcards from notes
Who is Edward Jenner?
Used cowpox virus as a vaccination for smallpox
What are commensal species?
'eat at the same table'
Enhance human nutrition by processing digested food, producing vitamins, and protect against disease
What are flora?
Community of microbial species that inhabits a particular niche - skin, mouth, gut, and vagina
What is clostridium difficile?
Produces toxins that cause diarrhea when patients recieve antibiotics that kill all their commensal species
What is a pathogen?
Organism with a potential to cause disease
Ex: bacteria, virus, fungi, parasite
Two responses immunity involves
Adaptive and innate immune response
Protective immunity is when...
Someone survives a specific infection and becomes immune to it
The first infection is the most
Process by which a virus, bacteria, etc., changes under laboratory condition to become harmless or less virulent
What are microbes?
A microorganism, especially one causing disease
What is vaccination?
Preventing severe disease by exposing the immune system to the infectious agent in a form that cannot cause the disease
What is a opportunistic pathogen?
Cause disease if the body's defenses are weakened or it gets into a part of the body it isn't normally found
What is mycobacterium tuberculosis?
Bacteria that causes tuberculosis
What is HIV?
Virus that causes AIDS
What is candida albicans?
Fungi that causes systemic candidiasis and thrush
What is trypanosoma beucei?
Protozoan parasite that causes sleeping sickness
What are candida albicans?
Normal inhabitant of the human body that occasionally causes thrush and systemic infections
Staphylococcus aureus are...
A gram positive bacterium that colonizes in human skin, common cause of pimples and boils, and may also cause food poisoning
Mycobacterium tuberculoses causes....
Skin is continuous with the ____ lining
Mucosal surfaces are ...
Internal surfaces that the skin gives way to specialized tissues communicating with their environment and are more vulnerable to microbial invasion
Mucosal surfaces are bathed in ___, which contains ___
glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and enzymes
Mucus helps protect ____ cells from damage and limit infection
Lysozyme in tears and saliva are...
All epithelial surfaces secrete...
Antimicrobial peptides that kill bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses by perturbing their membranes
Mechanical barriers in skin...
Flow of fluid, persperation, and the shedding of skin
Chemical barriers in skin...
Sebum (fatty acids, lactic acids, lyzosome)
Mechanical barriers in gastrointestinal tract...
Flow of fluid, mucus, food, and saliva
Chemical barriers in gastrointestinal tract...
Acidity and enzymes
Mechanical barriers in respiratory tract...
Flow of fluid and mucus by cilia and air flow
Chemical barriers in respiratory tract...
Lysozomes in nasal secretions
Mechanical barriers in urogenital tract...
Flow of mucus, urine, and sperm
Chemical barriers in urogenital tract...
Acidity, spermine and semen
Mechanical barriers in eyes...
flow of fluid and tears
Chemical barriers in eyes...
lysozyme in tears
Microbiological barriers preventing pathogens from cells in tissues...
Normal flora in skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, and eyes
What are the two parts of the innate immune response?
Recruitment of effector mechanisms to kill it
The serum proteins called compliment help...
tag an invader for uptake (phagocytosis)
bacteria in wound activates effector cells to secrete cytokines
Fluid, protein, and inflammatory cells leave blood and enter tissue
Infected tissue becomes inflamed, causing redness, heat, swelling and pain
The innate immune system...
first line of defense against infection
causes acute inflammatory response
Specific for microbes
The adaptive immune system...
takes 7-14 days to develop
specific for antigens, including microbes
primary and secondary immune response
The primary immune response is...
the first time the adaptive immune response is activated
The secondary immune response is...
any time the adaptive immune response is activated after the initial time
The innate and adaptive immune systems work together through...
direct cell contact and interactions involving chemical mediators (Cytokines and Chemokines)
What are chemokines?
large group of proteins involved in guiding white blood cells to sites they're needed
What are cytokines interact with...
cells to trigger innate immune response
Many of the cells of the ____ immune system are the same cells used by the ____ immune system
What is a lymphocyte?
A white blood cell that increases the power and focus of the immune response
People lacking innate immunity...
can't control infections at all; innate immunity cells are needed to activate the adaptive immunity
People lacking adaptive immunity...
can initially control an infection but can't clear it
Which two responses does immunity involve?
1. Flexible, but specific adaptive immune system
2. Fixed innate immune system
Innate immune response is determined by...
genes inherited from parents
Lymphoid cells are
20-50 percent of white blood cells
T cells, B cells and NK cells
Mononuclear Phagocytes are...
Monocytes that circulate the blood and macrophages found in tissues
Granulocytic cells are...
Basophils (based on morphology and cytoplasmic staining characteristics)
What are dendritic cells' main function?
Presentation of antigen to T cells
What is hematopoiesis?
The formation of cellular elements of blood (red and white blood cells and megakaryocytes)
What are megakaryocytes?
Stem cells divide into...
What is the most abundant leukocyte?
What is the second-most abundant leukocyte?
The general term for a white blood cell is a ___
The three types of leukocytes are...
Lymphocytes, granuloctes and monocytes
Lymphocytes are types of ___
Small Lymphocytes (adaptive immunity cells) are...
B cells (antibodies) and T cells (cytotoxic and helper functions)
Large granular lymphocytes are...
Natural Killer (NK) cells (innate immunity)
Plasma Cells are...
fully differentiated form of B cells that secretes antibodies
Naive lymphocytes (small lymphocytes) are..
resting cells that have not interacted with an antigen
Lymphoblasts are lymphocytes that have interacted with...
antigens and proliferate
Lymphoblasts eventually differentiate into ___ or ___
effector cells, memory cells
Effector cells eliminate ___
Natural killer cells kill cells ____ infected with certain viruses
Neutrophils uses ____ and killing of microorganisms
NK cells are found throughout the ___ and the body, but mainly in ___
NK cells contain ___ substances which are important for protection against ___ and some ___
cytotoxic, viruses, tumors
NK cells secrete cytokines which...
prevent viral infection and help activate T cell-mediated immunity
effectors of innate immunity, specialized in the capture, engulfment and killing of microbes
What are the two main killer cells?
macrophages and neutrophils
Neutrophils work in ___ conditions found in damaged tissues
Neutrophils are ___ and die at the site of the infection
Neutrophils are ___ cells that contain ___ substances in intracellular granules
Neutrophils employ ___-dependent and ___-independent pathways to destroy pathogens
Monocytes circulate ___ cell to ___
Macrophages perform ___ and kill microorganisms, as well as activating ___ and initiation of immune responses
phagocytosis, T cells
monocyte progenitors in bone marrow differentiate into pro-monocytes, which differentiates into monocytes after entering the blood
Monocytes circulate in the blood for ___ hours, mature and migrate into ___, then become ___
8, tissues, macrophages
The differentiation of monocyte into macrophage requires the following changes...
increased intracellular organelles and phagocytic ability
production of hydrolytic enzymes
secretion of soluble factors
Dendritic cells number one job is to ___
present antigen to T cell
Mast cells expel ____ from the body through release of ____ containing ____ histamine and other active agents
Follicular dendritic cells hold intact...
antigens in specialized areas of lymphoid tissues
Mast cells are found in the...
skin, connective tissue and mucosal epithelial tissue of the respiratory digestive tracts
Origin of mast cells?
uncertain but precursors differentiate in the bone marrow and mature in tissues
When activated mast cells degranulate...
they release pharmacological mediators which cause vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and attract leukocytes to the site of the degranulation
fight parasitic worm infections
involved in allergic reactions; granules contain histamine
What are megakaryocyte functions?
Platelet formation and wound repair
What are erythrocyte functions?
____ is a bone marrow cells responsible for the production of blood platelets when its cytoplasm becomes fragmented
____ bind to immune complexes composed of antigen and antibody and carry these complexes to the liver where these are cleared by Kupffer cells
Erythrocytes have an important immunological role in ...
clearing immune complexes from the circulation in persistent infections and in some autoimmune diseases
Kupffer cells are...
phagocytic cells of the liver that line the hepatic sinusoids
Neutrophils are Mobilized from the...
Bone Marrow, and Target (home) to Infection Sites
Mononuclear phagocyte system is a system of...
phagocytes located mainly in the organs and tissues; Monocytes are present in the blood stream and settle in the tissues as macrophages
Macrophage-like cells in the brain are...
What is the phagocytic process?
Phagocyte attraction to the site of infection
Phagocyte contact with the microbe
Killing of the ingested microbe by means of oxygen and oxygen-independent mechanisms
What is Opsonization?
Way of making microbes more palatable to the phagocyte; molecules coating a microbe, such as complement or antibody facilitate contact and ingestion of the microbe
Any molecule or molecular fragment that can be bound to by an antibody or be bound by an MHC molecule and presented to a T-cell.
Antibodies (immunoglobulins) are...
Proteins molecules synthesized by cells of immune system
The adaptive immune system is mediated by...
Name two primary organs
Thymus and bone marrow
Primary organs are where...
maturation of lymphocytes takes place
Lymph nodes, spleen and mucosal-associated tissues are..
Secondary organs trap...
antigen and promote lymphocyte activation
Lymphocytes are found in ____, activated in the ____ lymphoid tissues, and arise from ___ ___ in ___ ___
lymphoid tissues, secondary, stem cells, bone marrow
B cells mature in ___ ___
T cells mature in ____
What are the primary lymphoid tissues?
Bone marrow and thymus
What are secondary lymphoid tissue and lymphatics?
Spleen and lymph nodes
Thymus is the sight of ___ maturation
T cells in the thymus are calling ___
The thymus is a
flat,bilobed organ situated above the heart
What is the function of the thymus?
to generate a diverse repertoire of T cells to protect the body from infections
Bone marrow is the cite of...
B-cell origin and development
B cells proliferate and differentiate by interacting with...
stromal cells and cytokines
Small lymphocytes travel in the...
blood and lymph.
In the lymphatic system, antigens are carried to..
lymph nodes, as are lymphocytes, enabling interactions
When an antigen is encountered the lymphocyte will no longer...
Secondary lymphoid organs are the meeting place where...
lymphocytes circulating blood encounter antigens brought from sites of infection
Dendritic cells activated by infection also carry ___
Antigens derived from infections originating in connective tissues (as a result of skin wounds) are carried by the...
lymphatics to the nearest lymph node
Lymphocytes leave blood and enter ___ ___ where they are activated by pathogens
Pathogens drain from site of infection (example: foot) to lymph nodes via...
afferent lymphatic vessels
Activated lymphocytes stay in ___ ___ and divide and differentiate into ___ ___, while non-activated cells leave through ___ ___
lymph nodes, effector cells, efferent lymphatics
What is the architecture of a lymph node?
Kidney-shaped; packed with lymphocytes & macrophages through which lymph percolates
Pathogens and dendritic cells carrying pathogens arrive in ___ ___
Pathogens are degraded and used to stimulate ___
Lymph is the mixture of...
extracellular fluid and cells that is carried by the lymphatic system
Lymphocytes arrive at ___ ___ in arterial blood; extravasate from ___
lymph nodes, capillaries
In lymph nodes, there are discrete sites where...
B cells and T cells congregate
Effector B cells are plasma cells and they secrete...
Lymph node increases in size due to dividing ___
Lymphosites or �swollen glands�
The spleen is a filter for...
blood that removes old or damaged cells = red pulp
The spleen is the site where...
blood-borne pathogens encounter lymphocytes (a secondary lymphoid organ) = White pulp.
Blood is the only way in and out for...
lymphocytes as well as pathogens.
Spleenic ___ and ___ ___ in the spleen take-up antigen and stimulate T an B-cells.
macrophages, dendritic cells
White pulp of the spleen consists of...
sheath of lymphocytes called the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath (PALS) surrounding a central arteriole (CA)
In the spleen, T cells are closest to the ___, while B cells are more peripheral, forming a B cell ___
In the spleen, Germinal centers form between the...
T and B cell zones
In the spleen, The marginal zone contains differentiated...
Mucosal surfaces lining digestive, respiratory and urogenital tracts are the major sites of entry for pathogens and are defended by ____
In the mucosal-associated lymphoid system (MALT), tissues range from loosely organized clusters of ___ ___ to well-organized structures, such as ___ and ___
lymphoid, tonsils, appendix
The gut associated lymphoid tissues, GALT include ___, ___, ___ and Peyer�s patches that line the gut
tonsils, adenoids, appendix
Bronchial-associated lymphoid tissues, are also known as ___
In the GALT, pathogens arrive through direct delivery across ___ mediated by specialized cells called ____
mucosa, M cells
In the GALT, ____ enter from the blood, if not activated, leave in the lymphatics.
Lymphocytes that expand persist, providing ___ term memory
Subsequent infections with the same pathogen, having the same antigens, will elicit a ___ response which is much ___ and stronger than the original primary immune response.
Sub acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a...
brain disease that is a late consequence of measles
Diphtheria, poliomyelitis and measles have been virtually ___ from the USA
Mutation in immune function genes leads to ___
Extreme example of immunodeficiency due to disease is the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, ___