Immunology 1.txt

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Immunology 1.txt
2011-05-21 12:47:49
Immunology Chapter

Chapter 1 flashcards from notes
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  1. Who is Edward Jenner?
    Used cowpox virus as a vaccination for smallpox
  2. What are commensal species?
    'eat at the same table'

    Enhance human nutrition by processing digested food, producing vitamins, and protect against disease
  3. What are flora?
    Community of microbial species that inhabits a particular niche - skin, mouth, gut, and vagina
  4. What is clostridium difficile?
    Produces toxins that cause diarrhea when patients recieve antibiotics that kill all their commensal species
  5. What is a pathogen?
    Organism with a potential to cause disease

    Ex: bacteria, virus, fungi, parasite
  6. Two responses immunity involves
    Adaptive and innate immune response
  7. Protective immunity is when...
    Someone survives a specific infection and becomes immune to it
  8. The first infection is the most
  9. Define attenuation
    Process by which a virus, bacteria, etc., changes under laboratory condition to become harmless or less virulent
  10. What are microbes?
    A microorganism, especially one causing disease
  11. What is vaccination?
    Preventing severe disease by exposing the immune system to the infectious agent in a form that cannot cause the disease
  12. What is a opportunistic pathogen?
    Cause disease if the body's defenses are weakened or it gets into a part of the body it isn't normally found
  13. What is mycobacterium tuberculosis?
    Bacteria that causes tuberculosis
  14. What is HIV?
    Virus that causes AIDS
  15. What is candida albicans?
    Fungi that causes systemic candidiasis and thrush
  16. What is trypanosoma beucei?
    Protozoan parasite that causes sleeping sickness
  17. What are candida albicans?
    Normal inhabitant of the human body that occasionally causes thrush and systemic infections
  18. Staphylococcus aureus are...
    A gram positive bacterium that colonizes in human skin, common cause of pimples and boils, and may also cause food poisoning
  19. Mycobacterium tuberculoses causes....
  20. Skin is continuous with the ____ lining
  21. Mucosal surfaces are ...
    Internal surfaces that the skin gives way to specialized tissues communicating with their environment and are more vulnerable to microbial invasion
  22. Mucosal surfaces are bathed in ___, which contains ___
    • Mucus
    • glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and enzymes
  23. Mucus helps protect ____ cells from damage and limit infection
  24. Lysozyme in tears and saliva are...
  25. All epithelial surfaces secrete...
    Antimicrobial substances
  26. Defensins are...
    Antimicrobial peptides that kill bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses by perturbing their membranes
  27. Mechanical barriers in skin...
    Flow of fluid, persperation, and the shedding of skin
  28. Chemical barriers in skin...
    Sebum (fatty acids, lactic acids, lyzosome)
  29. Mechanical barriers in gastrointestinal tract...
    Flow of fluid, mucus, food, and saliva
  30. Chemical barriers in gastrointestinal tract...
    Acidity and enzymes
  31. Mechanical barriers in respiratory tract...
    Flow of fluid and mucus by cilia and air flow
  32. Chemical barriers in respiratory tract...
    Lysozomes in nasal secretions
  33. Mechanical barriers in urogenital tract...
    Flow of mucus, urine, and sperm
  34. Chemical barriers in urogenital tract...
    Acidity, spermine and semen
  35. Mechanical barriers in eyes...
    flow of fluid and tears
  36. Chemical barriers in eyes...
    lysozyme in tears
  37. Microbiological barriers preventing pathogens from cells in tissues...
    Normal flora in skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, and eyes
  38. What are the two parts of the innate immune response?
    • Pathogen recognition
    • Recruitment of effector mechanisms to kill it
  39. The serum proteins called compliment help...
    tag an invader for uptake (phagocytosis)
  40. Describe inflammation..
    • bacteria in wound activates effector cells to secrete cytokines
    • Fluid, protein, and inflammatory cells leave blood and enter tissue
    • Infected tissue becomes inflamed, causing redness, heat, swelling and pain
  41. The innate immune system...
    • first line of defense against infection
    • works rapidly
    • causes acute inflammatory response
    • Specific for microbes
  42. The adaptive immune system...
    • takes 7-14 days to develop
    • specific for antigens, including microbes
    • primary and secondary immune response
  43. The primary immune response is...
    the first time the adaptive immune response is activated
  44. The secondary immune response is...
    any time the adaptive immune response is activated after the initial time
  45. The innate and adaptive immune systems work together through...
    direct cell contact and interactions involving chemical mediators (Cytokines and Chemokines)
  46. What are chemokines?
    large group of proteins involved in guiding white blood cells to sites they're needed
  47. What are cytokines interact with...
    cells to trigger innate immune response
  48. Many of the cells of the ____ immune system are the same cells used by the ____ immune system
    innate, adaptive
  49. What is a lymphocyte?
    A white blood cell that increases the power and focus of the immune response
  50. People lacking innate immunity...
    can't control infections at all; innate immunity cells are needed to activate the adaptive immunity
  51. People lacking adaptive immunity...
    can initially control an infection but can't clear it
  52. Which two responses does immunity involve?
    • 1. Flexible, but specific adaptive immune system
    • 2. Fixed innate immune system
  53. Innate immune response is determined by...
    genes inherited from parents
  54. Lymphoid cells are
    • 20-50 percent of white blood cells
    • T cells, B cells and NK cells
  55. Mononuclear Phagocytes are...
    Monocytes that circulate the blood and macrophages found in tissues
  56. Granulocytic cells are...
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils (based on morphology and cytoplasmic staining characteristics)
  57. What are dendritic cells' main function?
    Presentation of antigen to T cells
  58. What is hematopoiesis?
    The formation of cellular elements of blood (red and white blood cells and megakaryocytes)
  59. What are megakaryocytes?
  60. Stem cells divide into...
    • lymphoid lineage
    • myeloid lineage
    • erythroid lineage
  61. What is the most abundant leukocyte?
  62. What is the second-most abundant leukocyte?
  63. The general term for a white blood cell is a ___
  64. The three types of leukocytes are...
    Lymphocytes, granuloctes and monocytes
  65. Lymphocytes are types of ___
  66. Small Lymphocytes (adaptive immunity cells) are...
    B cells (antibodies) and T cells (cytotoxic and helper functions)
  67. Large granular lymphocytes are...
    Natural Killer (NK) cells (innate immunity)
  68. Plasma Cells are...
    fully differentiated form of B cells that secretes antibodies
  69. Naive lymphocytes (small lymphocytes) are..
    resting cells that have not interacted with an antigen
  70. Lymphoblasts are lymphocytes that have interacted with...
    antigens and proliferate
  71. Lymphoblasts eventually differentiate into ___ or ___
    effector cells, memory cells
  72. Effector cells eliminate ___
  73. Natural killer cells kill cells ____ infected with certain viruses
  74. Neutrophils uses ____ and killing of microorganisms
  75. NK cells are found throughout the ___ and the body, but mainly in ___
    tissues, circulation
  76. NK cells contain ___ substances which are important for protection against ___ and some ___
    cytotoxic, viruses, tumors
  77. NK cells secrete cytokines which...
    prevent viral infection and help activate T cell-mediated immunity
  78. Neutrophils are...
    effectors of innate immunity, specialized in the capture, engulfment and killing of microbes
  79. What are the two main killer cells?
    macrophages and neutrophils
  80. Neutrophils work in ___ conditions found in damaged tissues
  81. Neutrophils are ___ and die at the site of the infection
  82. Neutrophils are ___ cells that contain ___ substances in intracellular granules
    phagocytic, toxic
  83. Neutrophils employ ___-dependent and ___-independent pathways to destroy pathogens
    oxygen, oxygen
  84. Monocytes circulate ___ cell to ___
    precursor, macrophage
  85. Macrophages perform ___ and kill microorganisms, as well as activating ___ and initiation of immune responses
    phagocytosis, T cells
  86. Mononuclear phagocytes...
    monocyte progenitors in bone marrow differentiate into pro-monocytes, which differentiates into monocytes after entering the blood
  87. Monocytes circulate in the blood for ___ hours, mature and migrate into ___, then become ___
    8, tissues, macrophages
  88. The differentiation of monocyte into macrophage requires the following changes...
    • monocyte enlarge
    • increased intracellular organelles and phagocytic ability
    • production of hydrolytic enzymes
    • secretion of soluble factors
  89. Dendritic cells number one job is to ___
    present antigen to T cell
  90. Mast cells expel ____ from the body through release of ____ containing ____ histamine and other active agents
    parasites, granules
  91. Follicular dendritic cells hold intact...
    antigens in specialized areas of lymphoid tissues
  92. Mast cells are found in the...
    skin, connective tissue and mucosal epithelial tissue of the respiratory digestive tracts
  93. Origin of mast cells?
    uncertain but precursors differentiate in the bone marrow and mature in tissues
  94. When activated mast cells degranulate...
    they release pharmacological mediators which cause vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and attract leukocytes to the site of the degranulation
  95. Eosinophils...
    fight parasitic worm infections
  96. Basophils are...
    involved in allergic reactions; granules contain histamine
  97. What are megakaryocyte functions?
    Platelet formation and wound repair
  98. What are erythrocyte functions?
    oxygen transport
  99. ____ is a bone marrow cells responsible for the production of blood platelets when its cytoplasm becomes fragmented
  100. ____ bind to immune complexes composed of antigen and antibody and carry these complexes to the liver where these are cleared by Kupffer cells
  101. Erythrocytes have an important immunological role in ...
    clearing immune complexes from the circulation in persistent infections and in some autoimmune diseases
  102. Kupffer cells are...
    phagocytic cells of the liver that line the hepatic sinusoids
  103. Neutrophils are Mobilized from the...
    Bone Marrow, and Target (home) to Infection Sites
  104. Mononuclear phagocyte system is a system of...
    phagocytes located mainly in the organs and tissues; Monocytes are present in the blood stream and settle in the tissues as macrophages
  105. Macrophage-like cells in the brain are...
  106. What is the phagocytic process?
    • Phagocyte attraction to the site of infection
    • Phagocyte contact with the microbe
    • Ingestion (endocytosis)
    • Killing of the ingested microbe by means of oxygen and oxygen-independent mechanisms
  107. What is Opsonization?
    Way of making microbes more palatable to the phagocyte; molecules coating a microbe, such as complement or antibody facilitate contact and ingestion of the microbe
  108. Antigens are...
    Any molecule or molecular fragment that can be bound to by an antibody or be bound by an MHC molecule and presented to a T-cell.
  109. Antibodies (immunoglobulins) are...
    Proteins molecules synthesized by cells of immune system
  110. The adaptive immune system is mediated by...
  111. Name two primary organs
    Thymus and bone marrow
  112. Primary organs are where...
    maturation of lymphocytes takes place
  113. Lymph nodes, spleen and mucosal-associated tissues are..
    secondary organs
  114. Secondary organs trap...
    antigen and promote lymphocyte activation
  115. Lymphocytes are found in ____, activated in the ____ lymphoid tissues, and arise from ___ ___ in ___ ___
    lymphoid tissues, secondary, stem cells, bone marrow
  116. B cells mature in ___ ___
    bone marrow
  117. T cells mature in ____
  118. What are the primary lymphoid tissues?
    Bone marrow and thymus
  119. What are secondary lymphoid tissue and lymphatics?
    Spleen and lymph nodes
  120. Thymus is the sight of ___ maturation
    T cell
  121. T cells in the thymus are calling ___
  122. The thymus is a
    flat,bilobed organ situated above the heart
  123. What is the function of the thymus?
    to generate a diverse repertoire of T cells to protect the body from infections
  124. Bone marrow is the cite of...
    B-cell origin and development
  125. B cells proliferate and differentiate by interacting with...
    stromal cells and cytokines
  126. Small lymphocytes travel in the...
    blood and lymph.
  127. In the lymphatic system, antigens are carried to..
    lymph nodes, as are lymphocytes, enabling interactions
  128. When an antigen is encountered the lymphocyte will no longer...
  129. Secondary lymphoid organs are the meeting place where...
    lymphocytes circulating blood encounter antigens brought from sites of infection
  130. Dendritic cells activated by infection also carry ___
  131. Antigens derived from infections originating in connective tissues (as a result of skin wounds) are carried by the...
    lymphatics to the nearest lymph node
  132. Lymphocytes leave blood and enter ___ ___ where they are activated by pathogens
    lymph nodes
  133. Pathogens drain from site of infection (example: foot) to lymph nodes via...
    afferent lymphatic vessels
  134. Activated lymphocytes stay in ___ ___ and divide and differentiate into ___ ___, while non-activated cells leave through ___ ___
    lymph nodes, effector cells, efferent lymphatics
  135. What is the architecture of a lymph node?
    Kidney-shaped; packed with lymphocytes & macrophages through which lymph percolates
  136. Pathogens and dendritic cells carrying pathogens arrive in ___ ___
    afferent lymph
  137. Pathogens are degraded and used to stimulate ___
  138. Lymph is the mixture of...
    extracellular fluid and cells that is carried by the lymphatic system
  139. Lymphocytes arrive at ___ ___ in arterial blood; extravasate from ___
    lymph nodes, capillaries
  140. In lymph nodes, there are discrete sites where...
    B cells and T cells congregate
  141. Effector B cells are plasma cells and they secrete...
  142. Lymph node increases in size due to dividing ___
    Lymphosites or �swollen glands�
  143. The spleen is a filter for...
    blood that removes old or damaged cells = red pulp
  144. The spleen is the site where...
    blood-borne pathogens encounter lymphocytes (a secondary lymphoid organ) = White pulp.
  145. Blood is the only way in and out for...
    lymphocytes as well as pathogens.
  146. Spleenic ___ and ___ ___ in the spleen take-up antigen and stimulate T an B-cells.
    macrophages, dendritic cells
  147. White pulp of the spleen consists of...
    sheath of lymphocytes called the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath (PALS) surrounding a central arteriole (CA)
  148. In the spleen, T cells are closest to the ___, while B cells are more peripheral, forming a B cell ___
    CA, corona
  149. In the spleen, Germinal centers form between the...
    T and B cell zones
  150. In the spleen, The marginal zone contains differentiated...
    B cells
  151. Mucosal surfaces lining digestive, respiratory and urogenital tracts are the major sites of entry for pathogens and are defended by ____
  152. In the mucosal-associated lymphoid system (MALT), tissues range from loosely organized clusters of ___ ___ to well-organized structures, such as ___ and ___
    lymphoid, tonsils, appendix
  153. The gut associated lymphoid tissues, GALT include ___, ___, ___ and Peyer�s patches that line the gut
    tonsils, adenoids, appendix
  154. Bronchial-associated lymphoid tissues, are also known as ___
  155. In the GALT, pathogens arrive through direct delivery across ___ mediated by specialized cells called ____
    mucosa, M cells
  156. In the GALT, ____ enter from the blood, if not activated, leave in the lymphatics.
  157. Lymphocytes that expand persist, providing ___ term memory
  158. Subsequent infections with the same pathogen, having the same antigens, will elicit a ___ response which is much ___ and stronger than the original primary immune response.
    secondary, faster
  159. Sub acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a...
    brain disease that is a late consequence of measles
  160. Diphtheria, poliomyelitis and measles have been virtually ___ from the USA
  161. Mutation in immune function genes leads to ___
  162. Extreme example of immunodeficiency due to disease is the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, ___