Orgo Test 1

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  1. Constitutional Isomers
    have the same molecular formula but different connectivity of atoms and different physical properties
  2. Valence
    the predictable number of bonds formed by an atom of a particular element

    eg. Carbon is tetravalent, Nitrogen is trivalent, oxygen is divalent, and hydrogen and the halogens are monovalent
  3. Octet Rule
    Rule where second row elements cannot have more than 8 electrons in their outermost shell. Follow this rule to acieve the electron configuration of the noble gases
  4. Formal Charge
    occurs when atoms do not exhibit the appropriate number of valence electrons

    • Positive means a lack of electrons
    • Negative means excess of electrons
  5. Bond Types
    • Covalent- equal sharing of electrons
    • Polar Covalent- uneven sharing of electrons
    • Ionic- btwn metal and nonmetal
  6. Atomic Orbitals
    a region of space that can be occupied by electon density

    there are s, p, d, and f types of orbitals
  7. Electron Density
    the probability of finding an elecron in a particular region of space
  8. Valence Bond Theory
    says every bond is the sharing of electron density between 2 atoms

    sigma bonds are when the electron density is located primarily on the bond axis
  9. Molecular Orbital Theory
    (bonding orbital, antibonding orbital)
    says the sharing of elecrons is associated with the whole molecule rather than just the 2 atomic orbitals.

    • Bonding orbital is the constructive interference btwn atoms
    • Antibonding orbital is the destructive interference of atoms
  10. sp3 Hybridization
    tetrahedral arrangements where there are 4 separate bonds possible

    Molecular geometry can be tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, or bent
  11. sp2 Hybridization
    trigonal planar arrangements where there are 3 separate bonds possible

    Molecular geometry can be trigonal planar or bent
  12. sp Hybridization
    linear arrangements where there are 2 separate bonds possible

    Only linear molecular geometry is possible
  13. Strength of Bonds
    triple bonds are strongest and shortest > double bonds > single bonds are weakest and longest
  14. Dipole Moments
    occur when center of negative charge and center of positive charge are separated from one another by a certain distance

    indicates polarity
  15. Bond Line Structure
    Method of drawing structures where carbon (with the hydrogen atoms attached to them) are represented only as ends of lines

    In this, carbon atoms are at every intersection and every end that is not designated for other atoms
  16. Functional Group
    characteristic group of atoms/bonds that show a predictable chemical behavior

    eg. Ketone
  17. 5 Patterns to look for in Resonance Structures
    • 1) an allylic lone pair
    • 2) an allylic positive charge
    • 3) a lone pair adjacent to a positive charge
    • 4) a pi bond between 2 atoms of differing electronegativity
    • 5) conjugated pi bonds enclosed in a ring
  18. Delocalized Lone Pair
    occupies a p-orbital and participated in resonance
  19. Localized Lone Pair
    does not participate in resonance
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    Acyl Halide

    Specific names would replace the halide with the name of the element and -ide
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    Carboxylic Acid
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    -anone is suffix
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    Aromatic Ring/ Arene

    -benzene is suffix
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    -thiol is suffix
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    -anol is suffix
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    -yne is suffix for triple bonded carbon
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    -ene is suffix for double bonded carbon
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    Alkyl Halide

    specific names would replace hallide with the name of the element and -ide (eg. alkyl chloride)
Card Set:
Orgo Test 1
2011-06-01 15:11:07
Organic Chemistry Dixon

Notes from Klein Textbook and Class
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