MA 203 A & P

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Shutrbug20
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87024
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MA 203 A & P
Updated:
2011-05-23 01:12:28
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Endocrine System
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Chapter 11 Unit 12
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  1. Primary Function
    Endocrine
    • Produce hormones
    • Work together to maintain homeostasis
  2. Hormones
    • Chemical messengers
    • Secreted by glands directly into blood stream
    • Regulate activities of specific cells / organs
    • Meaure levels by urine / blood tests
  3. 13 Major Glands
    • 1 Pituitary 1 Pineal 1 Thyroid
    • 1 Thymus 1 Pancreas 4 Parathyroid
    • 2 Adrenal 2 Gonads
  4. Steroids
    • Secreted
    • Man-made
    • Relieve swelling & inflammation (asthma)
  5. Fat Cells
    Adipocytes
    • Sectrete Leptin
    • Travels to brain
    • Controls balance of food intake & energy expenditures
  6. Neurohormones
    Secreted by specialized brain cells
  7. Endocrinologist
    Endocrine specialist
  8. Terminology
    • endo = within, crin/o = secrete, pathy = disease
    • hyper = excessive, crin = secrete, ism = condition
    • hypo = deficient, crin = secrete, ism = condition
    • somat/o = body, tropics = afinity for.
    • oxy = swift, tocin = labor (pitocin = synthetic)
    • acr/o = extremities, megaly = enlargement (excessive GH after puberty)
    • Gigantism = overgrowth entire body (GH before puberty)
    • algia = pain
    • hyper = excessive, glyc = sugar, emia = blood
    • poly = many, dipsia = thirst
    • phagia = eating
    • uria = urination
  9. Pituitary Gland
    • Master Gland
    • Anterior & Posterior Lobes
    • Hangs from infundibulum
    • Below hypothalamus
  10. Pituitary Gland
    Infundibulum
    Stalk like structure
  11. Pituitary Gland
    Primary Function
    • Master Gland
    • Secrete hormones to control other glands
    • Acts in response to stimuli from hypothalamus
  12. Pituitary Gland
    Anterior Lobe
    • Adrenocorticotropic = adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
    • Follicle Strim Hormone (FSH) = stim secretion of estrogen & ova growth in ovaries; sperm in testes
    • Growth (GH) = grow bone, muscle, tissue, etc...
    • Interstitial Cell-Stem (ICSH) = stims ovulation; ecrete testosterone
    • Lactogenic (Prolactin) = stim / maintain secretion breast milk
    • Luteinizing = stim ovulation / produce progesterone; stim testosterone
    • Melanocyte Stim = produce melanin, darker skin
    • Thyroid Stim (TSH) = stim growth / secretion of thyroid gland
  13. Pituitary Gland
    Posterior Lobe
    • Antidiuretic = maintains water balance, urine / no urine
    • Oxytocin = stim uterine contractions, stim flow of milk
  14. Pituitary Adenoma
    • Slow growing
    • Benign tumor
  15. Pituitary Adenoma
    Functioning
    Produce large & unregulated amounts of hormone
  16. Pituitary Adenoma
    Non-Functioning
    No production of hormone
  17. Prolactinoma
    • Benign tumor
    • Pituitary
    • Too much prolactin
    • Cause infertility
    • Changes in menstruation
    • Male impotence
  18. Diabetes Insipidus
    • Insuficient production antidiuretic
    • Inability kidneys respond to hormone
  19. Pineal Gland
    Central portion of brain
    • Influence sleep / wake cycle (cercadian cycle)
    • Secretes melatonin
    • Delays the onset of puberty
  20. Thyroid Gland
    • Regulate metabolism
    • Influence growth
    • Influence nervous system
    • Just under Larynx
  21. Thyroid Gland
    Secretes
    • Thyroxine & Triiodothyronine to control metabolism by rate they are secreted
    • TSH controls rate of secretion
    • Calcitonin = decreases calcium blood levels by moving into bones and teeth
  22. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
    (Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis)
    • Autoimmune disease
    • Attack / destroy cells of thyroid
  23. Hypothyroidism
    • Fatigue, Depression
    • Cold sensitive
    • Decrease metabolism
  24. Cretinism
    Congenital form of Hypothyroidism
  25. Myxedema
    • Adult Hypothyroidism
    • Swelling around eyes & cheeks
    • Fatigue & subnormal temperature
  26. Hyperthyroidism
    Thyrotoxicosis
    • Increase metabolism
    • Sweating, Nervousness
    • Weight loss
  27. Thyroid Storm
    Thyrotoxic Crisis
    • Life threatening
    • Fever, chest pain, palpations, short breath
    • Tremors, sweat, fatigue, disoriented
  28. Grave's Disease
    • Caused by Hyperthyroidism (most common)
    • Goiter in neck
    • Exophthalmos = protrusion of eyeball
  29. Thyroid Stim Hormone Assay
    • Test of circulating blood levels
    • Excessive pituitary stimulation
  30. Thyroid Scan
    Nuclear Medicine
  31. Chemical Thyroidectomy
    • Radioactive Iodine Therapy
    • Destroys thyroid cells
    • Treat Grave's Disease
  32. Parathyroid
    • Grain of rice, posterior surface to thyroid
    • Regulates calcium levels
    • Para hormone increases calcium levels
    • Release calcium from bone storage
  33. Primary Hyperparathyroidism
    • Weakened bones
    • Kidney stones
  34. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
    Adenoma
    • Disorder elswhere (kidney failure)
    • Weakness, fatigue, depression, aches, pain,
    • loss appetite, N&V, constipation,
    • Impaired thinking / memory,
    • Increased thirst / urination
  35. Osteitis Fibrosa
    • Complicated Hyperparathyroidism
    • Bones soften / deformed
    • Devlope cysts
  36. Hypoparathyroidism
    • Insufficient / absent hormone
    • Causes Hypocalcemia
    • Leads to Tetany (muscle spasms / tremors)
  37. Thymus
    • Midline thorasic cavity
    • Posterior to sternum
    • Part of early immune system developement
  38. Thymus
    Secretes
    Thymosin = stims lymphocytes into T-cells
  39. Pancreas
    • Feather shaped
    • Posterior to stomach
    • Both endocrine and digestive system
    • Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans = endocrine system
  40. Pancreas Function
    • Controls blood sugar levels & glocuse metabolism
    • Glucose = basic form of energy
    • Glycogen = liver stores as excess glucose
  41. Glucagon
    • Alpha cell secretion
    • Reacts to low blood sugar
    • Stimulates liver to convert glycogen into glucose
  42. Insulin
    • Beta cell secretion
    • Reacts to high blood sugar
    • Allows sugar to enter cells
    • Excess will stimulate liver to convert glucose to glycogen for storage
  43. Pancreatitis
    • Inflammation of pancreas
    • Long term alcohol abuse
  44. Hyperinsulinism
    Can cause hypoglycemia
  45. Type 1 Diabetes
    • Insulin deficiency
    • Destruction beta cells
    • Blured vision
    • slow healing
    • Insulin Injections
  46. Type 2 Diabetes
    • Insulin resistance disorder
    • Insulin not used effectively
    • Body produces more insulin
    • Childhood obesity
    • Recuring infection
    • Tingling hands / feet
    • Oral Medications
  47. Diabetes Tests
    • FBS = no eat 8-12hrs
    • Oral GTT to diagnose Hypoglycemia
    • Fructosamine Test = measures past 3 weeks
    • HbA1c = measures past 3-4 months
  48. Insulin Shock
    • Very low blood sugar
    • Sugar orally to raise quickly
  49. Diabetic Coma
    • Very high blood sugar
    • Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    • Prompt insulin
  50. Diabetic Retinopathy
    • Blood vessels in retina leak
    • loss of vision
  51. Adrenal Glands (Suprarenals)
    • On top kidneys
    • Outer portion = Cortex
    • Middle portion = Madulla
    • All surrounded by Capsule
  52. Adrenal Gland (Suprarenal)
    Primary Function
    • Control electrolytes (sodium & potassium)
    • Regulate metabolism & interaction with sympathetic nervous system
  53. Adrenal Gland (Suprarenal)
    Cortex
    • Secretes corticosteroids
    • - Aldosterone = regulates salt and water levels by increasing sodium reabsorption & potassium excretion by kidneys
    • - Androgens = influences sex related characteristics; adults use gonads
    • - Cortisol = Hydrocortisone = anti-inflammatory action, regulates metabolism of carbs, fats, & protiens
  54. Adrenal Gland (Suprarenal)
    Medulla
    • Epinephrine = adrenaline = stims symp nerve sys to stress
    • Norepinephrine = fight or flight
  55. Addison's Disease
    • Not enough adrenal cortex hormone
    • Chronic fatigue
    • Muscle weakness
    • Loss appetite
    • Weight loss
  56. Aldosteronism
    • Abnormal electrolyte balance
    • Excessive aldosterone
  57. Cushing's Syndrome
    Hypercortisolism
    • Prolonged high level cortisol\Moon face
    • Pad on back of neck
  58. Gonads
    • Secrete responsible develope / maintain 2nd sex characteristics during puberty
    • Gamete = sex cell
    • Ganodotropin = stims gonads
  59. Puberty
    • Capable of reproducing sexually
    • Maturing of organs
    • Develope 2nd sex characteristics
    • 1st menstruation
    • 12yrs = female
    • 14yrs = male
  60. Precocious Puberty
    • Before 9yrs female
    • 10yrs male
  61. Virile
    Properties of adult male
  62. Estrogen
    • Develope / maintain 2nd sex characteristics
    • Regulate monthly cycle
  63. Progesterone
    • 2nd half of cycle
    • Produced by Corpus Luteum in Ovary
    • Function = complete prep for pregnancy, if preg = placenta produce progesterone
    • If no preg = progesterone stops, period starts, reset cycle
  64. Gynecomastia
    Male mammaries

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