Oncology

Card Set Information

Author:
HuskerDevil
ID:
87069
Filename:
Oncology
Updated:
2011-05-21 20:43:50
Tags:
DPAP2012 Oncology
Folders:

Description:
Oncology cards made by previous students
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user HuskerDevil on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. EX. Carboplatin, chlorambucil, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, oxaliplatin. Alkylation of DNA is the crucial cytotoxic reaction. Cell cycle non-specific but most toxic to rapidly dividing cells. SE-NV (cisplatin)
    Alkylating agents
  2. Ex. capecitabine, cytarabine, fluorouracil, gemcitabine, methotrexate. Cell cycle specific. Inhibit growth & proliferation by competing for binding sites on enzymes & incorporation into DNA or RNA.
    Antimetabolites
  3. Ex. bleomycin, doxorubicin, epirubicin. Cell cycle non-specific. Binds to DNA causing breakage, & inhibits RNA synthesis SE-pulmonary toxicity (bleomycin), cardiac toxicity (doxorubicin)
    Antitumor antibiotics
  4. Paclitaxel, docetaxel. G2 and M phases. Inhibits mitosis b/c of antimicrotubule effect. Plant alkaloid. SE-hypersensitivity, neurologic toxicities
    Taxanes
  5. Irinotecan, topotecan. S phase. Topoisomerase-I inhibition, resulting in DNA breakage. Plant alkaloid
    Camptothecins
  6. etoposide, teniposide pre-mitotic G2 & S phases Topoisomerase-II inhibitor causing DNA breakage. Plant alkaloid. SE-hypersensitivity
    Epipodophyllotoxins
  7. Vinblastine, vincristine, vinorelbine. act in G2 and M phases. Anti microtubular agent inhibits mitosis. Plant alkaloid SE- Autonomic (constipation), and peripheral neurotoxicity
    Vinca alkaloids
  8. Tamoxifen, toremifene-Inhibit binding of the estrogen receptor Megestrol-suppresses adrenal steroid synthesis. SE-increased risk of blood clots, hot flashes
    Anti-estrogens
  9. Anastrozole, letrozole, Fulvestrant prevents conversion of androgens to estrogens in fat tissue
    aromatase inhibitors
  10. Trastuzumab, rituximab (ends in mab) Marks cell for attack by immune system, delivers antitumor agent, blocks cell receptors. SE-hypersensitivity/anaphylaxis, cardiac toxicity (trast), wound dehiscence (bevac), acne like rash (cetux)
    Monoclonal antibodies
  11. Ondansetron, granisetron (end in setron) Selectively block serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in the GI tract and the CTZ. Useful for N/V side effects. SE-headache, diarrhea, constipation
    Serotonin antagonists
  12. Prochlorperazine, Trimethobenzamide. Blockade of dopamine receptors in the CTZ (relieves N/V)-SE-sedation, hypotension, EPS
    Phenothiazines
  13. Dexamethasone, Methylprednisolone. For N/V, decreased appetite
    Corticosteroids
  14. Dronabinol. Used for N/V, decreased appetite. Likely due to depression of higher cortical pathways leading to emetic center.
    Cannabinoids
  15. Lorazepam. Amnestic, anxiolytic, and sedative
    Benzodiazepines
  16. Goserelin, Leuprolide. Hormonal negative feedback loop that results in suppression of the release of testosterone and estrogen. SE-Bone mineral density loss (Leuprolide)
    GRH Agonist
  17. Bicalutamide, Flutamide, Nilutamide. Nonsteroidal agents that competitively inhibit the binding of androgens to the androgen receptors in the prostate.
    Antiandrogens
  18. Blocks expression of oncogene or replace missing/defective tumor suppressor gene
    Gene therapy
  19. Interferes with proteins involved in apoptosis, causing cell death
    Apoptosis-inducing drugs
  20. Prevents the growth of blood vessels to support tumor cells
    Angiogenesis inhibitors
  21. Imatinib (tyrosine Kinase inhibitor)Gefitinib, Erlotinib (EGFR-TK inhibitor)Block enzymes and growth factor receptors involved in tumor cell growth
    Small molecule drugs
  22. Chemotherapeutic agent associated with pulmonary fibrosis
    bleomycin
  23. Chemotherapeutic agent associated with hemorrhagic cystitis
    cyclophosphamide
  24. Chemotherapeutic agent associated with cardiomyopathy
    doxorubicin
  25. Chemotherapeutic agent associated with renal toxicity
    cisplatin
  26. chemotherapeutic agent associated with skin pigmentation
    5-flurouracil
  27. Tumor with good response to chemo
    leukemias/lymphomas
  28. Tumor with good response to chemo
    Germ cell tumors
  29. Tumor with good response to chemo
    breast cancers
  30. Tumor with poor response to chemo
    pancreatic cancer
  31. Tumor with poor response to chemo
    melanoma
  32. Tumor with poor response to chemo
    soft tissue sarcomas
  33. Blocks HER2 receptors
    Herceptin
  34. The ability of a test to rule out a disease
    Sensitivity
  35. The percentage of people with cancer who will have an abnormal test
    Sensitivity
  36. The percentage of people without cancer whose test is negative
    Specificity
  37. The ability of a test to rule in disease
    Specificity
  38. Probability that people with an abnormal test actually have cancer
    Positive predictive value
  39. Probability that a negative test will predict that a person does not have cancer
    Negative predictive value
  40. Proteins normally found in larger amounts during fetal development
    Antigens
  41. These are examples of which type of tumor marker; AFP, CEA, PSA, CA-125, Bence Jones Proteins
    Antigens
  42. These are examples of which type of tumor marker; Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Galactosyl transferase II
    Enzymes
  43. This marker is often associated with tumors of endocrine glands
    Hormones
  44. These are examples of which type of tumor marker; Beta-HCG, Human Calcitonin
    Hormones
  45. Genes that are useful in fetal development but when activate in mature cells trigger tumor growth
    Oncogenes
  46. These are examples of which type of tumor marker; BRCA 1, BRCA 2, Philadelphia chromosome
    Oncogenes
  47. Philadelphia Chromosome is associated with which type of cancer
    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia-CML
  48. Cell surface proteins that affect the rate of tumor development by binding to hormones and growth factors
    Tissue receptors
  49. These are examples of which type of tumor marker; ER assay, PR assay, EGFR
    Tissue receptors
  50. What goes down as prevalence of disease goes down
    Positive predictive value
  51. Increased in 80-90% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
  52. Patients with cirrhosis and active hepatitis should be screened with which tumor marker every 3-4 months
    Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
  53. Used primarily to detect and monitor clinical course of Multiple Myeloma. It is not found in the blood b/c it is efficiently filtered by the kidneys. Considered to be the first tumor marker.
    Bence Jones Proteins
  54. This hormone tumor marker is normally negative except in pregnancy, and is never found in cancer free males.
    Beta-HCG
  55. This hormone tumor marker is primarily associated with the following; Hydatidiform mole of the uterus, choriocarcinoma of the uterus, and germ cell tumors of the ovaries
    Beta-HCG
  56. High levels of this hormone are almost always pathognomonic for germ cell neoplasm in men.
    Beta-HCG
  57. This antigen is useful in diagnosis, evaluation of therapy, and surveillance in patients with pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancer
    CA 19-9
  58. This antigen is elevated in 80-90% of women with ovarian cancer.
    CA 125
  59. This antigen is used in determining the extent of disease, prognosis, and response to therapy in patients with GI cancers.
    Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
  60. Baseline for this antigen is elevated in smokers.
    Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
  61. This antigen is used in screening for early detection of prostate cancer.
    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
  62. When combined with a digital rectal exam 90% of clinically significant cancers can be detected.
    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
  63. Not a tumor marker but a useful diagnostic tool for assessing risk of developing breast cancer in a woman in the general population
    The Gail model
  64. This tool takes into account these factors when assessing 5 year and lifetime risk of developing breast cancer; current age, age at menarche, previous breast biopsies, age at first live birth, family history of breast cancer.
    The Gail model
  65. Breast cancer oncogenes
    BRCA 1, BRCA 2
  66. Men with this mutation carry a markedly increased risk of developing prostate cancer and or colorectal cancer, and may pass the mutation to their daughters.
    BRCA 2
  67. This tissue receptor indicates sensitivity to hormonal therapy.
    Estrogen Receptor (ER) assay, and Progesterone Receptor (PR) Assay
  68. Tumors positive for this tissue receptor are more than twice as likely to respond to hormone therapy.
    ER assay
  69. This tissue receptor is more often positive in postmenopausal breast cancer patients
    PR assay
  70. An increased level of this antigen is associated with more aggressive breast cancers.
    HER 2 (neu)
  71. Triple negative tumors have no hormonal target for therapy and are negative for which markers.
    ER, PR, HER 2
  72. This antigen is elevated in 70-80% of patients with metastatic disease, and is rarely elevated in early stage disease.
    CA 15-3
  73. This antigen is useful in monitoring response to therapy in metastatic breast cancer patients.
    CA 27.29
  74. This rare marker is associated with liquid tumors; lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma.
    Beta2 microglobulin
  75. This rare antigen is not a good screening tool b/c levels can be elevated in UTI, renal calculi, recent urinary surgery
    Bladder tumor antigen (BTA)
  76. This rare marker is a good screening tool for patients at risk for bladder cancer
    Nuclear Matrix protein 22 (NMP22)
  77. A sensitive marker for detection of bladder cancer across all disease stages and grades
    Survivin
  78. This hormone is used to evaluate patients with at risk for/suspected medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.
    Human Calcitonin
  79. This enzyme is associated with Neuroblastoma, carcinoid, and small cell lung cancer
    Neuron Specific Enolase (NSA)
  80. This enzyme is primarily used to diagnose, stage, and monitor efficacy of treatment in prostate cancer
    Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP)
  81. This cancer has a 30% recurrence rate even decades after successful treatment
    Thyroid cancer
  82. This protein is the primary marker for surveillance of well-differentiated thyroid cancers in postoperative patients.
    Thyroglobulin
  83. Common tumor marker for ovarian cancer
    CA 125
  84. k-ras, c-myc, abl, Her2/neu are all examples of what
    Oncogenes
  85. Genes that once mutated activates the growth pathway
    Oncogenes
  86. Only one copy needs to be mutated to induce tumorigenesis
    Oncogenes
  87. Genes that normally inhibit growth
    Tumor suppressor genes
  88. A mutation of these causes a loss of inhibition
    Tumor suppressor genes
  89. Both copies need to be mutated to lose function
    Tumor suppressor genes
  90. Classic presentation of this type of cancer is painless jaundice
    Pancreatic cancer
  91. Tumor marker for teratoma
    Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
  92. No meat
    No treat
  93. Tissue
    Is the issue
  94. In what scenario do you not need a pathological specimen to initiate treatment
    Pancreatic mass
  95. A small needle is inserted into the mass and cells are removed for microscopic evaluation
    Fine needle aspiration
  96. Can be done guided or unguided
    Fine needle aspiration
  97. This type of biopsy is mainly applied to melanoma
    Punch biopsy
  98. What type of biopsy is not indicated for suspected melanoma
    Shave biopsy
  99. Once a tissue diagnosis positive for cancer is obtained what is the next step in treatment of the patient
    Radiographic staging
  100. Based on the theory that lymphatic spread proceeds through a consistent anatomic network of ducts and nodes based on tumor location
    Sentinel lymph node biopsy
  101. Looking for hot and blue nodes
    Sentinel lymph node biopsy
  102. It is recommended that those with this disorder start having colonoscopies in their teens
    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
  103. Should begin screening 10 years prior to the age of onset in the family member affected with what cancer.
    Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)
  104. Cyclophosphamide
    Cytoxan
  105. Ifosfamide
    Ifex
  106. Oxaliplatin
    Eloxatin
  107. Temozolomide
    Temodar
  108. Doxorubicin
    Adriamycin
  109. Capecitabine
    Xeloda
  110. Gemcitabine
    Gemzar
  111. Pemetrexed
    Alimta
  112. Vinblastine
    Velban
  113. Vincristine
    Oncovin
  114. Paclitaxel
    Taxol
  115. Paclitaxel – nanoparticle albumin bound
    Abraxane
  116. Docetaxel
    Taxotere
  117. Topotecan
    Hycamtin
  118. Irinotecan
    Camptosar
  119. Cisplatin
    Platinol
  120. Carboplatin
    Paraplatin
  121. Oxaliplatin
    Eloxatin
  122. Bicalutamide
    Casodex
  123. Anastrozole
    Arimidex
  124. Letrozole
    Femara
  125. Erlotinib
    Tarceva
  126. Imatinib
    Gleevec
  127. Alemtuzumab
    Campath
  128. Trastuzumab
    Herceptin
  129. Bevacizumab
    Avastin
  130. Rituximab
    Rituxan
  131. Cetuximab
    Erbitux
  132. Cyclophosphamide/ Cytoxan
    Alkylating agent
  133. Ifosfamide/ Ifex
    Alkylating agent
  134. Oxaliplatin/ Eloxatin
    Alkylating agent
  135. Temozolomide/ Temodar
    Alkylating agent
  136. Doxorubicin/ Adriamycin
    Anthracycline
  137. Capecitabine/ Xeloda
    Antimetabolite
  138. Gemcitabine/ Gemzar
    Antimetabolite
  139. Pemetrexed/ Alimta
    Antimetabolite
  140. Vinblastine/ Velban
    Vinca alkaloid
  141. Vincristine/ Oncovin
    Vinca alkaloid
  142. Paclitaxel/ Taxol
    Taxane
  143. Paclitaxel – nanoparticle albumin bound/ Abraxane
    Taxane
  144. Docetaxel/ Taxotere
    Taxane
  145. Topotecan/ Hycamtin
    Camptothecins
  146. Irinotecan/ Camptosar
    Camptothecins
  147. Cisplatin/ Platinol
    Platinum compound
  148. Carboplatin/ Paraplatin
    Platinum compound
  149. Oxaliplatin/ Eloxatin
    Platinum compound
  150. Bicalutamide/ Casodex
    Antiandrogen
  151. Anastrozole/ Arimidex
    Aromatase inhibitor
  152. Letrozole/ Femara
    Aromatase inhibitor
  153. Erlotinib/ Tarceva
    EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor
  154. Imatinib/ Gleevec
    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor
  155. Alemtuzumab/ Campath
    Monoclonal antibody
  156. Trastuzumab/ Herceptin
    Monoclonal antibody
  157. Bevacizumab/ Avastin
    Monoclonal antibody
  158. Rituximab/ Rituxan
    Monoclonal antibody
  159. Cetuximab/ Erbitux
    Monoclonal antibody
  160. Used in high risk populations to prevent cancer
    Chemoprevention
  161. Used before surgery to shrink tumor; less “radical” surgery
    Neoadjuvant therapy
  162. Used after surgery to eradicate micro-metastases
    Adjuvant therapy
  163. Used in high doses to obliterate the bone marrow as preparation for transplantation
    Myeloablation
  164. Eradication of disease; Complete response ≥ 5 years
    Cure:
  165. Extension of life when cure is not possible
    Control:
  166. Comfort when cure or control is impossible; Reduction of tumor burden that relieves associated symptoms & side effects, including pain
    Palliation:
  167. interferes with cell proliferation in various ways.
    Chemotherapy
  168. Resting Phase
    G0 (Gap 0):
  169. Post-mitotic Phase; Enzymes needed for DNA synthesis are produced & RNA synthesis is occurring
    G1 (Gap 1):
  170. DNA produced in preparation for cell division
    S (Synthesis):
  171. Pre-mitotic/Post-Synthesis Phase. Cell makes RNA & proteins for cell division
    G2 (Gap 2):
  172. Cell division occurs
    M (Mitosis):
  173. Class of DRUGS that act on phase: M
    Vinca alkaloids
  174. Class of DRUGS that act on phase: G2
    Bleomycin; Etoposide
  175. Class of DRUGS that act on phase: S
    Antimetabolites
  176. Class of DRUGS that act on phase: all phases
    Cell Cycle Nonspecific Agents: Alkylating agents; Anthracyclines; Nitrosoureas
  177. Mechanism: Alkylation of DNA
    Alkylating Agents
  178. Common side effects: Myelosuppression; Hypersensitivity; Renal; GI; Secondary malignancies
    Alkylating Agents
  179. Mechanism: Binds to DNA, causing breakage; Inhibits RNA synthesis
    Antitumor Antibiotics
  180. AE: Myelosuppression; GI; Cutaneous; Pulmonary toxicity ; Cardiac toxicity
    Antitumor Antibiotics
  181. Mechanism: Similar to normal cellular substances, and when incorporated into cell, make unable to divide.
    Antimetabolites
  182. AE: Myelosuppression; GI (diarrhea); Cutaneous
    Antimetabolites
  183. Camptothecins; Epipodophyllotoxins; Taxanes; Vinca alkaloids; Derived from plants; Cell cycle specific
    Plant Alkaloids
  184. Mechanism: Topoisomerase-I inhibitor; Act in S phase
    Camptothecins
  185. Common side effects: Myelosuppression; Alopecia; GI
    Camptothecins
  186. Common side effects: Hypersensitivity, Myelosuppression, GI, Hypotension
    Epipodophyllotoxins
  187. Mechanism: Topoisomerase-II inhibitor; Act in G2 and S phases
    Epipodophyllotoxins
  188. Mechanism: Anti microtubular agent; Inhibits mitosis; Act in G2 and M phase
    Taxanes
  189. Common side effects: Hypersensitivity, Myelosuppression, Cutaneous, Neurologic Toxicities
    Taxanes
  190. Mechanism: Anti microtubular agent; Inhibits mitosis; Act in G2 and M phases
    Vinca alkaloids
  191. Common side effects: Myelosuppression, CONSTIPATION and Peripheral Neurotoxicity
    Vinca alkaloids
  192. Bind to estrogen receptors on tumor surface; Prevent cell growth/cause cell death
    Antiestrogens
  193. Block aromatase enzyme, which converts androgens to estrogen; Absence of estrogen causes tumors to shrink
    Aromatase Inhibitors
  194. Inhibit the binding of testosterone to the androgen receptors in the prostate
    Antiandrogens
  195. Leuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone; Signals pituitary gland to stop releasing LH Direct effect on testicles & ovaries
    LHRH agonists
  196. Target specific antigens on cancer cell surface Marks cell for attack by immune system Blocks specific receptors Delivers anti-tumor agent
    Monoclonal Antibodies
  197. Side effects Infusion reaction (hypersensitivity/anaphylaxis) – ALL! Cardiac toxicity (Trastuzumab)Bleeding/wound dehiscence (Bevacizumab)Skin rash (Cetuximab)
    Monoclonal Antibodies
  198. anti HER2
    Breast Ca
  199. anti CD20
    NHL
  200. anti CD52
    CLL
  201. EGFR
    Met Colon Ca
  202. Protein secreted by cancer cells to promote new vessel formation
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
  203. Stimulate immune system (MAb’s)
    Biologic response modifiers
  204. Interleukin, interferon
    Cytokines
  205. Most common dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy
    Myelosuppression
  206. ANC = 1500 to 2000
    Not significant
  207. ANC = 1000 to 1500
    Minimal
  208. ANC = 500 to 1000
    Moderate
  209. Severe
    ANC = < 500
  210. CINV: Occurs within 24 hours; Incidence determined by agents
    Acute:
  211. CINV: Occurs at least 24 hours after therapy and may persist up to 6 days; Cisplatin associated with highest incidence
    Delayed
  212. CINV: Occurs before or during treatment from associated stimuli; a conditioned response; 25% incidence
    Anticipatory:
  213. MOA: Selective blockade of serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in the GI tract & the brain
    Serotonin Antagonists
  214. AEs: Headache, diarrhea or constipation
    Serotonin Antagonists
  215. MOA: Blockade of dopamine receptors in the CTZ
    Phenothiazines
  216. AEs: Sedation, hypotension, EPS
    Phenothiazines
  217. AEs: insomnia, hyperglycemia, increased appetite, euphoria, agitation/anxiety
    Corticosteroids
  218. MOA: Unknown.
    Corticosteroids & Cannabinoids
  219. Improves nausea, appetite and pain
    Cannabinoids
  220. MOA: Amnestic, anxiolytic, and sedative properties
    Benzodiazepines
  221. AEs: Sedation, hypotension, disinhibition, motor incoordination
    Benzodiazepines
  222. Irinotecan !!!Fluorouracil; Topotecan-Capecitabine
    Diarrhea
  223. Vincristine - Vinorelbine; Vinblastine
    Constipation
  224. Inflammation of the GI mucosa
    Mucositis:
  225. Inflammation of the oral mucosa
    Stomatitis:
  226. Anthracyclines Doxorubicin, Epirubicin Early or late onset LV dysfunction, dose related
    Cardiac Toxicity
  227. Trastuzumab (Herceptin)LV dysfunction Often reversible if drug discontinued
    Cardiac Toxicity
  228. CT, MR
    CNS
  229. Radiographs, CT, PET
    Lung
  230. Mammography, US, (MR)
    Breast
  231. Colonoscopy (conventional vs. virtual), CT, PET
    Colon
  232. US, MR
    Endometrial/Ovarian
  233. Radiographs, CT, MR; PET to trouble shoot
    Bone & Soft Tissues
  234. Cellular products that are helpful in the detection, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of certain cancers
    Tumor Markers
  235. The percentage of people with cancer who will have an abnormal test
    Sensitivity
  236. The ability to identify people who have the disease
    Sensitivity
  237. The percentage of people without cancer whose test is negative
    Specificity
  238. The ability to identify people who do not have the disease
    Specificity
  239. Probability that people with an abnormal test actually have cancer
    Positive Predictive Value
  240. Probability that a negative test will predict that a person does not have cancer
    Negative Predictive Value
  241. Five general categories of tumor markers:
    Antigens; Enzymes; Hormones; Oncogenes; Tissue Receptors
  242. Proteins normally found in larger amounts during fetal development. Cancers contain undifferentiated cells that may carry surface markers of their fetal predecessors; these cells often manufacture antigen proteins in increased quantities
    Antigens
  243. AFP, CEA, PSA, CA-125, Bence Jones Proteins
    Antigens
  244. Blood plasma levels of these proteins may be increased in malignant tissue; Measured by immunoassay
    Enzymes
  245. Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Galactosyl transferase II
    Enzymes
  246. Beta-HCG, Human Calcitonin
    Hormones
  247. Either larger-than-normal amounts of the hormone usually secreted by the specific tissue Or hormonal production by tissue which does not normally produce that hormone
    Hormones
  248. Or hormonal production by tissue which does not normally produce that hormone
    “Ectopic Production”
  249. Genes that are useful in fetal development but when activated in mature cells trigger tumor growth
    Oncogenes
  250. BRCA 1; BRCA 2;Philadelphia chromosome
    Oncogenes
  251. Cell surface proteins that affect the rate of tumor development by binding to hormones and growth factors
    Tissue Receptors
  252. ER Assay, PR Assay, EGFR
    Tissue Receptors
  253. A test designed to detect cancer in an asymptomatic person
    Screening
  254. An abnormal level of a tumor marker increases suspicion of cancer over a similarly presenting non-malignant condition
    Diagnosis and Staging
  255. Extremely high values may be
    pathognomonic
  256. Most tumor markers are used to monitor patients for recurrence of cancer following treatment
    Surveillance
  257. Antigen used to screen patients with a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
    Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
  258. ANTIGEN used primarily to detect and monitor clinical course of Multiple Myeloma
    Bence Jones Proteins
  259. found in multiple myeloma and in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and bone metastases
    Bence Jones Proteins
  260. HORMONE: Glycoprotein produced by placental tissue; Normally negative except in pregnancy
    Beta-HCG
  261. Hydatidiform mole of the uterus Choriocarcinoma of the uterus Germ cell tumors of the ovaries Also elevated in hepatoma
    Beta-HCG
  262. Never found in normal males High levels are almost always pathognomonic for germ cell neoplasm in men
    Beta-HCG
  263. Antigen: pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancer
    Cancer Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9)
  264. ANTIGEN: ovarian cancer
    Cancer Antigen-125 (CA-125)
  265. ANTIGEN: prognosis, and response to therapy in patients with GI cancers* Discovered in colorectal cancer, but also useful in other malignancies: Breast, pancreas, gastric, hepatobiliary, small cell lung cancer
    Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
  266. Elevated baseline levels found in smokers
    Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
  267. Antigen: prostate cancer
    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
  268. oncogenes: development of breast cancer & ovarian cancer
    BRCA 1 / BRCA 2
  269. Men with a BRCA mutation carry a markedly increased risk of developing prostate cancer and/or colorectal cancer; May pass mutation to their daughters
    BRCA 1 / BRCA 2
  270. TISSUE RECEPTOR: breast cancer
    Estrogen Receptor (ER) Assay; Progesterone Receptor (PR) Assay
  271. ANTIGEN: aggressive breast cancers
    HER 2 (neu)
  272. ER-/PR-/HER 2 -
    triple negative”
  273. ANTIGEN: First breast cancer tumor marker available; Rarely elevated in early stage disease; Elevated in 70-80% of patients with metastatic disease
    CA 15-3
  274. ANTIGEN: early stage patients have elevated levels & 65% of patients with metastatic disease have elevated Useful in monitoring response to therapy in metastatic breast cancer patients
    CA 27.29
  275. Corresponds to tumor burden, prognosis, and response to therapy in liquid tumors: Lymphoma; Leukemia
    Beta2 microglobulin
  276. Bladder Cancer Markers
    Bladder Tumor Antigen (BTA); Nuclear Matrix Protein 22 (NMP22); Survivin
  277. GI cancers
    Galactosyl transferase II
  278. Hormone level used to evaluate patients with suspected medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
    Human Calcitonin
  279. Neuroblastoma; Carcinoid; Small cell lung cancer
    Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE)
  280. Enzyme primarily used to diagnose, stage, and monitor efficacy of treatment in prostate cancer
    Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP)
  281. Primary tumor marker for surveillance of well-differentiated thyroid cancers in post-operative patients
    Thyroglobulin
  282. number of newly diagnosed cases during a specific time period
    Incidence
  283. new and existing cases for people alive on a certain date
    Prevalence
  284. overall or disease-free
    Survival
  285. probability of developing or dying of cancer
    Lifetime risk
  286. Commonly diagnosed cancers
    Women: breast, lung, colorectal Men: prostate, lung, colorectal
  287. Leading cause of death from cancer
    Women: lung, breast, colorectal Men: lung, prostate, colorectal
  288. Diagnostic testing which is intended to detect a disease or identify risk for disease, in an asymptomatic patient
    Secondary Prevention: Screening
  289. Mammography not recommended ages 40-49
    Category C
  290. Mammography recommended ages 50-74 yr – every 2 years
    Category B
  291. Teaching self-breast examination not recommended
    Category D:
  292. Insufficient evidence to assess clinical breast exam utility
    Category I
  293. Insufficient evidence for additional benefit of digital mammography or MRI
    Category I
  294. Women at high risk (Criteria=family history) –refer for genetic counseling and BRCA testing
    USPSTF Category B
  295. Women not at risk (criteria- no family history) – recommend against referral for hereditary counseling or BRCA testing (2005)
    USPSTF Category D
  296. recommendation for PAP (conventional) starting age 21 or within 3 yrs of first sexual activity (whichever occurs 1st). PAP every 3yrs
    Category A
  297. Recommends against routine screening over age 65 if previously normal exams, in average risk patient; or after complete hysterectomy
    Category D
  298. insufficient evidence for HPV DNA as primary screening.
    Category I
  299. recommends against PAP screening if total hysterectomy for benign disease
    Category D
  300. Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against new screening technologies
    Category I
  301. Ovarian Cancer: Available tests :CA125; Transvaginal Ultrasound; Recommends against routine screening.
    Category D
  302. Colorectal Cancer: age 50 - 75 if average risk
    Category A
  303. recommend against CRC screening in age 76-85, with individual patient consideration for benefits.
    Category C
  304. recommend against screening in adults over 85 years of age.
    Category D
  305. insufficient evidence to assess balance of benefit/harm for CT colonoscopy or DNA testing
    Category I
  306. Use of Aspirin or NSAID as chemoprevention of CRC (2007)- Potential harm outweighs potential benefit
    Category D:
  307. Lung Cancer: Available Procedures: CXR; Sputum Cytology: Low-dose/helical/spiral CT: insufficient evidence for all 3 procedures
    Category I
  308. Prostate Cancer: Insufficient evidence to consider balance of benefit/harm for men < 75.
    Category I:
  309. Prostate Cancer: against screening in men > 75.
    Category D
  310. Bladder (2004)Pancreatic (2004)Testicular (2004)
    Category D
  311. Oral Skin Thyroid
    Category I

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview