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2011-05-21 21:25:40
HUM Vocab

HUM Vocab
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  1. Blank Verse
    unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter, that is, lines consisting of ten syllables each with accents on every second syllable
  2. Chorale
    a congregational hymn, first sung in the Lutheran church
  3. Couplet
    two successive lines of verse with similar end-rhymes
  4. Engraving
    a short piece of expository prose that examines a single subject
  5. Genre Painting
    art depicting scenes from everyday life; not to be confused with "genre," a term used to designate a particular category in literature or art, such as the essay (in literature) and portraiture (in painting)
  6. Picaresque Novel
    a prose genre that narrates the comic misadventures of a roguish hero
  7. Quatrain
    a four-line stanza
  8. Woodcut
    a relief printing process by which all parts of a design are cut away except those that will be inked
  9. Aria
    an elaborate solo song or duet, usually with instrumental accompaniment, performed as part of an opera or other dramatic musical composition
  10. Cartouche
    an oval tablet or medallion, usually containing an inscription or heraldic device
  11. Chancel
    the space for clergy and choir surrounding the altar in a church
  12. Chromatic Scale
    a series of twelve tones represented by the seven white and five black keys of the piano keyboard
  13. Concertato
    (Italian, concerto = "opposing" or "competing") an early baroque style in which voices or instruments of different rather than similar natures are used in an opposing or contrasting manner
  14. Cornet (French, cornett; German, Kornett; Spanish, cururucho)
    an early type of trumpet
  15. Dynamics
    the degree of loudness or softness in music
  16. Foreshortening
    a perspective device by which figures or objects appear to recede or project into space
  17. Libretto (Italian, "little book")
    the words of an opera or other textual musical composition
  18. Overture
    an instrumental introduction to a longer musical piece, such as an opera
  19. Piazza (Italian)
    a broad, open public space
  20. Pizzicato (Italian)
    the technique of plucking (with the fingers) rather than bowing a stringed instrument
  21. Polychoral
    music written for two or more choruses, performed both in turn and together
  22. Recitative
    a textual passage recited to sparse chordal accompaniment; a rhythmically free vocal style popular in seventeenth-century opera
  23. Stucco
    a light, pliable plaster made of gypsum, sand, water, and ground marble
  24. Tonality
    the use of a central note, called the tonic, around which all other tonal material of a composition is organized, and to which the music returns for a sense of rest and finality
  25. Chinoiserie (a French term, signifying "Chinese-esque")
    European imitation of Chinese art, architecture, and decorative motifs; also any objects that reflect such imitation
  26. Choreography
    the art of composing, arranging, and/or notating dance movements
  27. Comédie-ballet (French)
    a dramatic performance that features interludes of song and dance
  28. Haiku
    a light verse form consisting of seventeen syllables (three lines of five, seven, and five)
  29. Kabuki (Japanese, "song-dance art")
    a popular form of Japanese drama
  30. Marquetry
    a decorative technique in which patterns are created on a wooden surface by means of inlaid wood, shell, or ivory
  31. Maxim
    a short, concise, and often witty saying
  32. Objet d'art (French)
    art object
  33. Pietra dura (Italian, "hard stone")
    an ornamental technique involving inlaid precious and semiprecious stones
  34. Salon (French, "drawing room")
    an elegant apartment or drawing room
  35. Shah (Persian)
  36. Sharia
    the body of Muslim law based on the Qur'an and the Hadith
  37. Sultan
    a Muslim ruler
  38. Burin
    a steel tool used for engraving and incising
  39. Cantata (Italian, cantare 5 "to sing")
    a multimovement composition for voices and instrumental accompaniment; smaller in scale than the oratorio
  40. Etching
    a kind of engraving in which a metal plate is covered with resin, then incised with a burin; acid is applied to "eat" away the exposed lines, which are inked before the plate is wiped clean and printed
  41. Figured bass
    in baroque music, the line of music with numbers written below (or above) it to indicate the required harmonies, usually improvised in the form of keyboard chords accompanying the melody; also called "continuo"
  42. Homophony
    a musical texture consisting of a dominant melody supported by chordal accompaniment that is far less important than the melody; compare polyphony
  43. Impasto
    the thick application of pigment to the surface of a painting
  44. Oratorio (Latin, oratorium 5 "church chapel")
    a musical setting of a long text, either religious or secular, for soloists, chorus, narrator, and orchestra; usually performed without scenery, costumes, or dramatic action
  45. Prelude
    a piece of instrumental music that introduces either a church service or another piece of music
  46. Cartesian
    of or relating to René Descartes or his philosophy
  47. Concerto (Italian, "opposing" or "competing")
    an instrumental composition consisting of one or more solo instruments and a larger group of instruments playing in "dialogue"
  48. Concerto grosso
    a "large concerto," the typical kind of baroque concerto, consisting of several movements
  49. Deductive reasoning
    a method of inquiry that begins with clearly established general premises and moves toward the establishment of particular truths
  50. Deism
    a movement or system of thought advocating natural religion based on human reason rather than revelation; deists describe God as Creator, but deny that God interferes with the laws of the universe
  51. Dualism
    the view that holds the mind (a thinking entity) as distinct from the body
  52. Equal temperament
    a system of tuning that originated in the seventeenth century, whereby the octave is divided into twelve half-steps of equal size; since intervals have the same value in all keys, music may be played in any key, and a musician may change from one key to another with complete freedom.
  53. Fugue ("flight")
    a polyphonic composition in which a theme (or subject) is imitated, restated, and developed by successively entering voice parts
  54. Geocentric
  55. Heliocentric
  56. Inductive reasoning
    a method of inquiry that begins with direct observation and experimentation and moves toward the establishment of general conclusions or axioms
  57. Movement
    a major section in a long instrumental composition
  58. Ritornello (Italian, "a little return")
    in baroque music, an instrumental section that recurs throughout the movement
  59. Sonata
    an instrumental composition consisting of three movements of contrasting tempo, usually fast/slow/fast
  60. Suite
    an instrumental composition consisting of a sequence or series of movements derived from court or folk dances
  61. Vanitas (Latin, "vanity")
    a type of still life consisting of objects that symbolize the brevity of life and the transience of earthly pleasures and achievements
  62. Heroic couplet
    a pair of rhymed iambic pentameter lines that reach completion in structure and in sense at the end of the second line
  63. Laissez-faire (French, "allow to act")
    a general policy of noninterference in the economy, defended by such classical economists as Adam Smith
  64. Philosophes (French, "philosophers")
    the intellectuals of the European Enlightenment
  65. Social contract
    an agreement made between citizens leading to the establishment of the state
  66. Caricature
    exaggeration of peculiarities or defects to produce comic or burlesque effects
  67. Idealism
    in philosophy, the theory that holds that reality consists of the mind and its ideas; transcendental (or critical) idealism is Kant's name for the doctrine that knowledge is a synthetic product of the logical self
  68. Allegro (Italian, "cheerful")
    a fast tempo in music
  69. Andante (Italian, "going," i.e., a normal walking pace)
    a moderate tempo in music
  70. Bacchante
    a female attendant or devotee of Dionysus
  71. Brass
    a family of wind instruments that usually includes the French horn, trumpet, trombone, and tuba
  72. Coda (Italian, "tail")
    passage added to the closing section of a movement or musical composition in order to create the sense of a definite ending
  73. Concerto
    the classical concerto, which made use of sonata form, usually featured one or more solo instruments and orchestra
  74. Fête galante (French, "elegant entertainment")
    a festive diversion enjoyed by aristocrats, a favored subject in Rococo art
  75. Fortissimo (Italian, "very loud")
    a directive indicating that the music should be played very loud; its opposite is pianissimo ("very soft")
  76. Intermezzo
    a short dramatic entertainment, with music, inserted between the acts of a play or opera
  77. Largo
    a very slow tempo; the slowest of the conventional tempos in music
  78. Opera buffa
    a type of comic opera usually featuring stock characters
  79. Pastel
    a crayon made of dry powdered color and a gum binder, used for drawing
  80. Percussion
    a group of instruments that are sounded by being struck or shaken, used especially for rhythm
  81. Satyr
    a semibestial woodland creature symbolic of Dionysus
  82. Score
    the musical notation for all of the instruments or voices in a particular composition; a composite from which the whole piece may be conducted or studied
  83. Sonata
    a composition for an unaccompanied keyboard instrument or for another instrument with keyboard accompaniment
  84. Sonata form (or sonata allegro form)
    a structural form commonly used in the late eighteenth century for the first and fourth movements of symphonies and other instrumental compositions
  85. String quartet
    a composition for four stringed instruments, each of which plays its own part
  86. Strings
    a family of instruments that usually includes the violin, viola, cello, and double bass (which are normally bowed); the harp, guitar, lute, and zither (which are normally plucked) can also be included, as can the viol, a bowed instrument common in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and a forerunner of the violin family
  87. Symphony
    an independent instrumental composition for orchestra
  88. Theme and variations
    a form employing a basic musical idea that is repeated with changes in rhythm, harmony, melody, dynamics, or tone color
  89. Woodwinds
    a family of wind instruments, usually consisting of the flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon
  90. Alliteration
    a literary device involving the repetition of initial sounds in successive or closely associated words or syllables
  91. Assonance
    a literary device involving similarity in sound between vowels followed by different consonants
  92. Dialectic
    in Hegelian philosophy, the process by which every condition (or "thesis") confronts an opposite condition (or "antithesis") to resolve in synthesis
  93. Eugenics
    the science of improving human beings by means of genetic manipulation
  94. Free verse
    poetry that is based on irregular rhythmic patterns rather than on the conventional and regular use of meter
  95. Lyric poetry
    "lyric" means accompanied by the lyre, hence, verse that is meant to be sung rather than spoken; poetry marked by individual and personal emotion
  96. Pantheism
    the belief that a divine spirit pervades all things in the universe
  97. Aquatint
    a type of print produced by an engraving method similar to etching but involving finely granulated tonal areas rather than line alone
  98. Arabesque
    in ballet, a position in which the dancer stands on one leg with the other extended behind and one or both arms held to create the longest line possible from one extremity of the body to the other
  99. Arpeggio
    the sounding of the notes of a chord in rapid succession
  100. Bel canto (Italian, "beautiful singing" or "beautiful song")
    an operatic style characterized by lyricism and florid vocal embellishment
  101. Dynamics
    the gradations of loudness or softness with which music is performed
  102. Etude
    an instrumental study designed to improve a player's performance technique
  103. Idée fixe (French, "fixed idea")
    a term used by Berlioz for a recurring theme in his symphonic works
  104. impromptu (French, "improvised")
    a short keyboard composition that sounds as if it were improvised
  105. Leitmotif (German, "leading motif")
    a short musical theme that designates a person, object, place, or idea and that reappears throughout a musical composition
  106. Lied (German, "song," pl. lieder)
    an independent song for solo voice and piano; also known as "art song"
  107. Music-drama
    a unique synthesis of sound and story in which both are developed simultaneously and continuously; a term used to describe Wagner's later operas
  108. Nocturne
    a slow, songlike piece, usually written for piano; the melody is played by the right hand, and a steady, soft accompaniment is played by the left
  109. Opus (Latin, "work")
    a musical composition; followed by a number, it designates either the chronological place of a musical composition in the composer's total musical output or the order of its publication; often abbreviated "op."
  110. Prima ballerina
    the first, or leading, female dancer in a ballet company
  111. Program music
    instrumental music endowed with specific literary or pictorial content that is indicated by the composer
  112. Scherzo (Italian, "joke")
    in Beethoven's music, a sprightly, lively movement
  113. Tone color
    the distinctive quality of musical sound made by a voice, a musical instrument, or a combination of instruments; also called "timbre"
  114. Tremolo
    in music, the rapid repetition of a single pitch or two pitches alternately, producing a trembling effect
  115. Virtuoso
    one who exhibits great technical ability, especially in musical performance; also used to describe a musical composition demanding (or a performance demonstrating) great technical skill