Chap 3.5 Vocab

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Chap 3.5 Vocab
2010-03-01 19:42:55
life science

vocabulary from chapter 3.5
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  1. Metabolism
    The total of all chemical reactions in an organism
  2. Enzymes
    • Cellular protiens that aid in chemical reactions
    • Causes changes in cells by breaking things apart or putting them together
    • Causes a change, but is not changed in the process
    • Each chemical reaction requires a specific enzyme
    • Requires energy for EVERY chemical reaction they cause
  3. Active site
    Where the chemical reaction takes place
  4. Substrate
    Substance or substances that are affected by the enzyme
  5. Producer
    • An organism that makes its own food
    • Converts energy from the sun into useable energy
  6. Consumer
    • An organism that CANNOT make its own food
    • Uses energy from other organisms
  7. Photosynthesis
    • The process of converting energy from the sun (light energy) into a useable form of energy (chemical energy)
    • Clorophyll captures the light needed for this reaction
    • Extra glucose made is stored as starch
  8. Chemical energy
    Energy that is stored in the bonds of molecules
  9. 6CO^2 + 6H^2O + light energy > C^6H^12+6O^2
    • Process of photosynthesis
    • Six molecules of carbon dioxide, six moleculea of water, & light energy yields 1 molecule of sugar & six molecules of oxygen
  10. Cellular respiration
    • The chemical reactions that break down food molecules into simpler substances and release the energy stored in them
    • Requires energy
    • Begins in cytoplasm then moves into mitochondria
    • In the cytoplasm, enzymes break dowm carbs into glucose then into pyruvates
    • In the mitochondria, they are broken down even further releasing large amounts of energy (ATP)
  11. 6O^2 + C^6H^12+6O^2 > 6CO^2 + 6H^2O + chemical energy
    • Process of cellular respiration
    • Six molecules of oxygen and one molecule of sugar yeilds six molecules of water, six molecules of caebon dioxide, and chemical energy
  12. Fermentation
    • Only occurs when cells do not have enough oxygen for cellular respiration
    • Cells use fermentation to release energy from glucose molecules
    • Only happens in cytoplasm
    • Produces energy, lactic acid or alcohol, and carbon dioxide
  13. Lactic acid
    The substance released in fermentation that makes your musces sore