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  1. What is the cause of rheumatic heart disease
    Cardiac disease secondary to rheumatic fever, resulting from Type A streptococcal infection
  2. what complicationsare associated with rheumatic fever
    • Heart failure
    • Arrhythmias
    • Infective endocarditis
    • Sudden cardiac death
  3. What time frame should antibiotics be given to avoid rheumatic fever
    • Within the first 2-3 weeks
    • Caridac damage becomes evident some 30 years later
  4. What is a temproary imbalance of O2 to the myocardium
    Angina pectoris
  5. What are the signs and symptoms of cardiac tampanod
    • Chest pain
    • Dysnea
    • Orthopnea
    • Altered mental status or consciousness
  6. MI is the most common cause of q
    Cardiogenic Shock
  7. Looking for CASH as manifestations of poor perfusion in Arrhythmias
    • C=Chest Pain
    • A=altered mental status
    • S=shortness of breath
    • H=Hypotension
  8. Arrythmias and EKGs
  9. What is the most common cause of MI
  10. What is an accumiltion of fluid within the pericardial sac causing compression of the heart
    Cardiac Tamponade
  11. Usually caused by trauma, will have rapid onset of manifistations of symptoms.
    Infectious process or malignancy may take longer for fluid accumilation or compression
    Cardiac Tamponade
  12. Most common causitive agent of endocarditis
    Gram negative bacteria
  13. These patients are at high risk for Endocarditis
    • Prosthetic heart valve
    • Aortic valve disease
    • Mitral regurgitation
    • Patent ductus arterious
    • Ventricular septal defect
    • coartation of the aorta
    • Marfans syndrome
    • Intravenous drug abuse
  14. Patients who are at intermediate risk for endocarditis
    • Mitral valve prolapse
    • Pure mitral Stenosis
    • Tricuspid valve diease
    • pulmonary valve disease
    • previous endocarditis
    • Calcified aortic stenosis
  15. Patients at LOW risk for endocarditis
    • atrial septal defect
    • arteriosclerotic plaque
    • Coronar artery disease
    • syphilitic aortic disease
    • cardiac pacemakers
  16. What is the most common arrythmia associated with cardiac death
    Ventricular Fibrillation
  17. What medications are used to manage MI
    • O2 -2-4 L NC
    • Nitroglycerin 1 sublingual dose Q 5 min x3
    • Asprin 325 mg po chewed and swallowed
    • Morphine 2-5mg slow IV
  18. What are the symptoms of aortic stenosis
    • SAD
    • S= Syncope, especially exertional
    • A= Anginal chest pain
    • D= Dyspnea
  19. clinical findings of aortic stenosis
    • Murmur: creshendo-decrescendo systolic murmur at the right upper sternal border
    • murmur may radiate to the neck
    • S4 possible
    • lateral displacement of PMI
    • Weak peripheral pulses with narrowed pulse pressure
    • possible signs of congestive hr\eart failure
  20. Most common cause of Mitral Stenosis
    Rheumatic heart disease
  21. Clinical findings of endocarditis
    • New or recent changes in heart murmur
    • septic emboli
    • Petechiae
    • Hemorrhagic
    • Anemia
    • Splenomegaly
    • Clubbing of the digits
  22. Symptoms of Pericarditis
    • Chest Pain
    • Increased chest pain with twisting of the thorax
    • radiates to scapula
    • typically relieved by sitting up and leaning forward
    • may be accompanied by fevers, chills, and myalgias if due to an infectious process
  23. What is the JNC-7 recommendation for pre hypertension
    • Lifestyle modifications and other preventive measures
    • Weight reduction and treatment
  24. The most common primary diagnosis in america
    Primary Hypertension
  25. Complications of Hypertension
    • Worsening of hypertension
    • Myocardial ischemia or infection
    • Cerebrovascular accident
    • Retinopathy
    • Nephropathy
  26. What medications do you give for anaphylactic shock
    • Epinephrin 0.3-0.5 mg IM or SQ q3-5 min
    • IM: 0.1mg dilute in 10ml of NSS q3-5 min
    • Dyphenhydramine 25-50mg IM
    • Albuterol via nebulizer tx
    • H2 blockers (ranitidine, cimetidine)

  27. What
    is defined as any abnormality in the cardiac conduction system; results
    in a change in pulse rate or rhythm. Basically, anything that is not normal
    sinus rhythm?


  28. Heart failure, Arrhythmias (A-fib, Ventricular arrhythmias),
    Infective endocarditis, and sudden cardiac death are complications of what?

  29. - Complications of
    • Rheumatic Heart Disease

    • -Complications (primary due to valvular disease)

  30. . Early treatment of what, aids in prevention of Rheumatic

    - Streptococcal pharyngitis

  31. . Rheumatic fever develops how many weeks after the initial
    throat infection?

    • - 2-3 weeks
  32. Pectoris

  33. A
    patient presents with chest pain, dyspnea, shortness of breath, and an altered
    mental status may have what cardiac condition?
    • Cardiac Tamponade

  34. What
    is the most important ‘section’ of an EKG in relation to an arrhythmia?

    QRS complex

  35. What
    usually results from thrombus formation in a coronary artery, initiated
    by ulceration of an atherosclerotic plaque?
    • Myocardial Infarction

  36. Trauma, Infectious process or malignancy, and Complication
    of cardiothoracic surgery are causes of what condition?

    • Cardiac Tamponade

  37. What
    are the three components of Cholesterol that make up ‘Total” Cholesterol
    • - Low-density

    • lipoproteins (LDL)
    • - High-density lipoproteins (HDL)

    • -

    • Triglycerides

  38. What
    component of Total Cholesterol is considered a “negative risk factor
    for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)?
    • High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)

  39. What Total Cholesterol level is considered to be “High Risk”
    in (mg/dl)

    • Greater than > 240mg/dl
  40. Block
  41. Block)
  42. AV Block (Complete Heart Block)

  43. Niacin
    is also known as what?

    - Nicotinic acid

  44. Nicotinic acid may be considered in the treatment of what
    condition, due to its cost (or) its ability to increase HDL levels?

    • Heyperlipidemia (High Cholesterol)

  45. Niacin
    has what effect on LDL? Niacin has what effect on HDL?

    • - Lowers ¯LDL by 20%

    • - Raises ­ HDL by 20-40%

  46. What medication class is contraindicated in pregnancy and
    may cause potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis and renal failure (extremely rare)?

    • HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors AKA: Statins

  47. Syncope
    with exertion, anginal chest pain, and dyspnea are all symptoms of what?

    - Aortic Stenosis

  48. What condition is almost always due to rheumatic heart
    disease and usually accompanies mitral stenosis?

    • Tricuspid Stenosis

  49. .
    Janeway lesions and Osler’s nodes are associated with what condition?
    • Endocarditis, dermatologic Involvement

  50. Tender, pea-sized, erythematous nodules usually found in the
    puld spaces of the fingers and toes are known as what?

    • - Osler’s Nodes
  51. findings)

  52. What symptom favors Pericarditis vice AMI?

    Duration of pain for several days

  53. Sharp, stabbing pain for several days that starts anteriorly
    and radiates to the scapula is symptomatic of what condition?

    • Pericarditis

  54. . Aortic Dissection is a tear in which layer,
    through which blood accumulates within the aortic wall.

    • The
    • aortic intima

  55. What is the primary difference between Hypertensive Urgency
    and Emergency?

  56. Urgencyno end-organ damage yet
  57. Emergency – some finding of end-organ damage

  58. Hypertensive encephalopathy, Hypertensive nephropathy, Visual
    changes, Neurologic impairment, and Cardiovascular insufficiency are symptoms
    of what condition?

    • Hypertensive Emergency / Crisis
  59. encephalopathy: headache, confusion, irritability, and/or
    • altered mental status
    • Hypertensive nephropathy: oliguria or anuria

    • Visual changes: blurred vision, diplopia

    • Neurologic impairment: numbness, tingling, weakness

    • Cardiovascular insufficiency: dyspnea, orthopnea, chest pain

  60. Antibiotics,
    Sulfa-containing agents, and Vaccines are all causative agents in what type of
    • Anaphylactic Shock

  61. What is “Shock state resulting from abnormal cardiac
    function” resulting in reduction in cardiac output and inadequate en-organ

    Cardiogenic Shock

  62. A patient presents with cool, clammy skin with “wet” lung
    sounds. What type of shock are they experiencing?

    • Cardiogenic Shock

  63. What
    is the most common cause of Cardiogenic Shock?
    • Myocardial Infarction
Card Set:
2011-05-23 06:39:29
Cardio MDT

Cardio, Heart disease, heartq infections
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