Acid Base

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HuskerDevil
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87093
Filename:
Acid Base
Updated:
2011-05-21 23:03:05
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DPAP2012 Acid Base
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Acid Base cards made by previous students
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  1. PCO2
    partial pressure of CO2
  2. percent of CO2 carried in the plasma
    0.1
  3. the faster and more deeply the patient breaths the
    more CO2 is blown off
  4. as CO2 levels increase
    blood pH decreases
  5. as CO2 levels increase
    blood PCO2 increases
  6. a rise in PCO2 stimulates a rise in
    respiratory rate
  7. in metabolic acidosis the lungs attempt to compensate by
    blowing off CO2
  8. in metabolic alkalosis the lungs attempt to compensate by
    retaining CO2
  9. Most of the CO2 content in the blood is
    HCO3-
  10. Bicarbonate ion
    HCO3-
  11. CO2 content is an indirect measurement of
    HCO3-
  12. _____ is a measurement of the metabolic (renal) component of the acid-base equilibrium
    HCO3-
  13. in respiratory alkalosis the _____ excrete HCO3 in an attempt to lower pH
    kidneys
  14. the measure of the tension of O2 dissolved in the plasma
    PO2
  15. patients in whom venous blood mixes prematurely with arterial blood have a decrease in ____
    PO2
  16. the indication of the percentage of hemoglobin filled with O2
    O2 saturation
  17. when ___% to 100% of the hemoglobin carries O2 the tissues are adequately provided with O2
    92
  18. non-invasive method of determining O2 saturation
    pulse oximetry
  19. a negative base excess indicates
    metabolic acidosis
  20. a positive base excess indicates
    metabolic alkylosis or compensation to prolonged respiratory acidosis
  21. acidosis is present if the pH is less than
    7.4
  22. alkylosis is present if the pH is greater than
    7.4
  23. if the PCO2 is low in a patient who has been said to have acidosis the patient has
    metabolic acidosis
  24. if the PCO2 is high in a patient who has been said to have acidosis the patient has
    respiratory acidosis
  25. if the PCO2 is low in a patient who has been said to have alkylosis the patient has
    respiratory alkylosis
  26. if the PCO2 is high in a patient who has been said to have alkylosis the patient has
    metabolic alkylosis
  27. O2 saturation can be falsely increased by the inhalation of
    carbon monoxide
  28. In patients with COPD the stimulus to breathe is not triggered by CO2 levels but by
    O2
  29. Perform which test before performing an arterial puncture in the radial artery
    Allen test
  30. low pH, low HCO3-, low CO2
    metabolic acidosis
  31. low pH, high HCO3-, high CO2
    respiratory acidosis
  32. high pH, high HCO3-, high CO2
    metabolic alkalosis
  33. high pH, low HCO3-, low CO2
    respiratory alkalosis
  34. pH <7.4
    acidemia
  35. pH >7.4
    alkalemia
  36. normal pCO2
    40
  37. normal HCO3-
    22-29
  38. __|__|__/ (bottom) | |X \ chem 7
    creatinine
  39. X |__|__/ | | \ chem 7
    Na
  40. __|X |__/ | | \ chem 7
    Cl
  41. __|__|X / | | \ chem 7
    BUN
  42. __|__|__/ (bottom) X | | \ chem 7
    K
  43. __|__|__/ (bottom) |X | \ chem 7
    HCO3-
  44. __|__|__/ | | \ X chem 7
    glucose
  45. if bicarb is low you expect pCO2 to be
    low
  46. if pCO2 is high you expect bicarb to be
    high
  47. example of cause of non-anion gap metabolic acidosis
    diarrhea
  48. example of cause of anion gap metabolic acidosis
    excessive alcohol consumption
  49. non-anion gap metabolic acidosis is characterized by
    loss of bicarb
  50. anion gap metabolic acidosis is characterized by
    gain of acid
  51. normal Cl- is
    96-106
  52. normal BUN is
    40742
  53. normal glucose
    70-115
  54. normal creatinine
    0.6-1.2
  55. normal K
    3.5-5.1
  56. normal Na
    135-145
  57. normal anion gap
    40740
  58. normal osmolality
    275-295
  59. primary etiology of respiratory acidosis
    lungs fail to eliminate CO2
  60. example of a cause of metabolic alkalosis
    protracted vomiting
  61. example of a cause of metabolic alkalosis
    ingestion of a large quantity of base
  62. in a metabolic alkalotic state will you have hypokalemia or hyperkalemia
    hypokalemia
  63. in a metabolic acidotic state will you have hypokalemia or hyperkalemia
    hyperkalemia
  64. primary etiology of respiratory alkalosis
    lungs are eliminating too much CO2
  65. in acute respiratory acidosis for every increase of pCO2 of 10mm pH decreases by
    0.08
  66. in chronic respiratory acidosis for every increase of pCO2 of 10mm, ph decreases by
    0.03
  67. in acute respiratory alkalosis for every decrease of pCO2 of 10mm pH increases by
    0.08
  68. in chronic respiratory alkalosis for every decrease of pCO2 of 10mm pH increases by
    0.03
  69. a pH which is too acid for the PCO2
    metabolic acidosis
  70. the only acid which can be exhaled via the lungs
    carbon dioxide
  71. includes all of the body's acids except carbon dioxide
    metabolic acids
  72. difference between the sum of the major anions and the major cations
    anion gap
  73. _____ is the same as Respiratory Acidosis
    high pCO2
  74. The normal value of pCO2 in arterial blood is __mmHg
    40
  75. implies a raised [H+] level with a normal PCO2
    pure metabolic acidosis
  76. high PCO2 causes molecules of CO2 and water to form carbonic acid which ionizes to increase both [HCO3-] and [H+]
    pure respiratory acidosis
  77. normal ph
    7.4 (7.35-7.45)
  78. normal pO2
    90 (80-100)
  79. normal pCO2
    40 (35-45)
  80. normal HCO3
    24 (22-26)
  81. __ refers to acid base disorders initiated by changes in PCO2
    respiratory
  82. __ refers to acid base disorders initiated by changes in HCO3
    metabolic
  83. a disorder with a low pH and a low bicarbonate concentration
    metabolic acidosis
  84. a disorder with a high pH and a high bicarbonate concentration
    metabolic alkalosis
  85. a disorder with a low pH and a high pCO2
    respiratory acidosis
  86. a disorder with a high pH and a low pCO2
    respiratory alkalosis
  87. what is a normal anion gap
    7-13
  88. what is the formula for anion gap
    cations(Na+) - anions (Cl- + HCO3-)
  89. anion gap metabolic acidosis is due to
    gain in protons
  90. non-anion gap metabolic acidosis is due to
    loss of HCO3
  91. how does the body compensate for metabolic acidosis
    increased respiratory rate to blow off CO2
  92. for every HCO3 fall by 1 mmol/L, pCO2 should fall by __mmHg
    1.2
  93. what is the differential for anion gap metabolic acidosis
    • MUDPILES
    • methanol,
    • uremia,
    • DKA,
    • paraldehyde,
    • INH,
    • lactate,
    • ethylene glycol,
    • salicylates

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