a&e chap15 medic12

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a&e chap15 medic12
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  1. Functions of the Respiratory System
    • 1) Provide large area for gas exchange between air & circulating blood.
    • 2) Moving air to & from the gas-exchange surfaces of the lungs.
    • 3) Protecting respiratory surfaces from dehydration & temperature changes & defending against invading pathogens.
    • 4) Producing sounds that permit speech, singing, & nonverbal auditory communication.
    • 5) Providing olfactory sensations to the CNS for the sense of smell.
  2. 1) Provide large area for gas exchange between air & circulating blood.
    2) Moving air to & from the gas-exchange surfaces of the lungs.
    3) Protecting respiratory surfaces from dehydration & temperature changes & defending against invading pathogens.
    4) Producing sounds that permit speech, singing, & nonverbal auditory communication.
    5) Providing olfactory sensations to the CNS for the sense of smell.
    Functions of the Respiratory System
  3. Respitory System Includes...
    • 1) nose (including nasal cavity & paranasal sinuses)
    • 2) pharynx
    • 3) larynx
    • 4) trachea
    • 5) various conducting passageways that lead to the surfaces of the lungs
  4. 1) nose (including nasal cavity & paranasal sinuses)
    2) pharynx
    3) larynx
    4) trachea
    5) various conducting passageways that lead to the surfaces of the lungs
    Respitory System Includes...
  5. Respiratory tract consists of...
    conducting passageways that carry air to & from the aveoli.
  6. conducting passageways that carry air to & from the aveoli.
    Respiratory tract consists of...
  7. Air normally enters the respiratory system...
    through the external nares then into the nasal cavity.
  8. through the external nares then into the nasal cavity.
    Air normally enters the respiratory system...
  9. nasal vestibule
    (entrance) is guarded by hairs that screen out large particles.
  10. (entrance) is guarded by hairs that screen out large particles.
    nasal vestibule
  11. Hard Palate
    separates the oral & nasal cavities.
  12. separates the oral & nasal cavities.
    Hard Palate
  13. Soft Palate
    separates the superior nasopharynx from the rest of the pharynx.
  14. separates the superior nasopharynx from the rest of the pharynx.
    Soft Palate
  15. Internal Nares
    connect the nasal cavity & nasopharynx.
  16. connect the nasal cavity & nasopharynx.
    Internal Nares
  17. Much of the respiratory epithelium...
    is ciliated & produces mucus that traps incoming particles.
  18. is ciliated & produces mucus that traps incoming particles.
    Much of the respiratory epithelium...
  19. Pharynx
    (throat) is a chamber shared by the digestive & respiratory systems
  20. (throat) is a chamber shared by the digestive & respiratory systems
    Pharynx
  21. Inhaled air passes...
    through the glottis en route to the lungs.
  22. through the glottis en route to the lungs.
    Inhaled air passes...
  23. Larynx
    surrounds & protects the glottis
  24. surrounds & protects the glottis
    Larynx
  25. Exhaled air that passes...
    through the glottis vibrates the true vocal cords & produces sound.
  26. through the glottis vibrates the true vocal cords & produces sound.
    Exhaled air that passes...
  27. Trachea
    • 1) (windpipe) contains C-shaped tracheal cartilages, wh/ protect the airway
    • 2) posterior tracheal wall can distort to permit large masses of food to pass
  28. 1) (windpipe) contains C-shaped tracheal cartilages, wh/ protect the airway
    2) posterior tracheal wall can distort to permit large masses of food to pass
    Trachea
  29. primary bronchi
    trachea branches within the mediastinum to form the right & left _______ _______
  30. trachea branches within the mediastinum to form the right & left _______ _______
    primary bronchi
  31. bronchial tree
    are formed by the primary bronchi, secondary bronchi & their branches
  32. are formed by the primary bronchi, secondary bronchi & their branches
    bronchial tree
  33. Each terminal bronchiole...
    delivers air to a single pulmonary lobule.
  34. delivers air to a single pulmonary lobule.
    Each terminal bronchiole...
  35. Within the lobule, the terminal bronchiole branches into...
    respiratory bronchioles.
  36. respiratory bronchioles.
    Within the lobule, the terminal bronchiole branches into...
  37. The respiratory bronchiles open into...
    alveolar ducts, wh/ end at alveolar sacs.
  38. alveolar ducts, wh/ end at alveolar sacs.
    The respiratory bronchiles open into...
  39. Respiratory Membrane
    • consists of
    • 1) a simple squamous alveolar
    • 2) a capillary endothelium
    • 3) their fused basement membranes
  40. consists of
    1) a simple squamous alveolar
    2) a capillary endothelium
    3) their fused basement membranes
    Respiratory Membrane
  41. Septal Cells
    produce surfacant, an oily secretion that keeps the alvioli from collapsing
  42. produce surfacant, an oily secretion that keeps the alvioli from collapsing
    Septal Cells
  43. Alveolar Macrophages
    engulf foreign particles
  44. engulf foreign particles
    Alveolar Macrophages
  45. Lungs made up of...
    5 lobes (3 in the right lung & 2 in the left lung).
  46. 5 lobes (3 in the right lung & 2 in the left lung).
    Lungs made up of...
  47. Each lung occupies...
    a single pleural cavity lined by a pleura (serous membrane).
  48. a single pleural cavity lined by a pleura (serous membrane).
    Each lung occupies...
  49. Pulmonary Ventilation
    breathing, movement of air into & out of the lungs
  50. breathing, movement of air into & out of the lungs
    Pulmonary Ventilation
  51. Gas Exchange
    diffusion, between the alveoli & circulating blood, & between the blood & interstitial fluids
  52. diffusion, between the alveoli & circulating blood, & between the blood & interstitial fluids
    Gas Exchange
  53. Gas Transport
    between the blood & interstitial fluids
  54. between the blood & interstitial fluids
    Gas Transport
  55. Respiratory Cycle (single breath)
    consists of an inhalation (inspiration) & an exhalation (expiration)
  56. consists of an inhalation (inspiration) & an exhalation (expiration)
    Respiratory Cycle (single breath)
  57. determines the direction of air-flow
    relationship between the pressure inside the respiratory tract & atmospheric pressure
  58. relationship between the pressure inside the respiratory tract & atmospheric pressure
    determines the direction of air-flow
  59. quiet breathing
    diaphragm & the external intercostal muscles are involved in which exhalation is passive
  60. diaphragm & the external intercostal muscles are involved in which exhalation is passive
    quiet breathing
  61. forced breathing
    accessory muscles become active during the active inspiratory & expiratory movements in which exhalation is active
  62. accessory muscles become active during the active inspiratory & expiratory movements in which exhalation is active
    forced breathing
  63. Vital Capacity
    • includes...
    • 1) expiratory reserve volume
    • 2) inspiratory reserve volume
  64. includes...
    1) expiratory reserve volume
    2) inspiratory reserve volume
    Vital Capacity
  65. Residual Volume
    air left in the lungs at the end of maximum expiration
  66. air left in the lungs at the end of maximum expiration
    Residual Volume
  67. Gas Exchange
    • involves...
    • 1) external respiration
    • 2) internal respiration
  68. involves...
    1) external respiration
    2) internal respiration
    Gas Exchange
  69. External Respiration
    the diffusion of gases between the blood & alveolar air across the respiratory membrane
  70. the diffusion of gases between the blood & alveolar air across the respiratory membrane
    External Respiration
  71. Internal Respiration
    the diffusion of gases between blood & interstitial fluid across the endothelial cells of capillary walls
  72. the diffusion of gases between blood & interstitial fluid across the endothelial cells of capillary walls
    Internal Respiration
  73. Blood that enters peripheral capillaries...
    delivers O2 & takes up CO2.
  74. delivers O2 & takes up CO2.
    Blood that enters peripheral capillaries...
  75. The transport of O2 & CO2 in the blood...
    involves reactions that are completely reversible.
  76. involves reactions that are completely reversible.
    The transport of O2 & CO2 in the blood...
  77. Over the range of O2 pressures normally present in the body, a small change in the plasma PO2...
    will result in a large change in the amount of O2 bound or released by hemoglobin.
  78. will result in a large change in the amount of O2 bound or released by hemoglobin.
    Over the range of O2 pressures normally present in the body, a small change in the plasma PO2...
  79. Large-scale changes in O2 demand...
    require the integration of cardiovascular & respiratory responses.
  80. require the integration of cardiovascular & respiratory responses.
    Large-scale changes in O2 demand...
  81. Arterioles that lead to alveolar capillaries constrict & bronchioles dilate when...
    O2 is low & CO2 is high.
  82. When O2 is low & CO2 is high what do arterioles that lead to alveolar capillaries & bronchioles do?
    Arterioles constrict & bronchioles dilate.
  83. Bronchiles dilate when...
    CO2 is high.
  84. When CO2 is high what do bronchiles do?
    dilate
  85. When O2 is low arterioles that lead to alviolar capillaries...
    contrict.
  86. When do arterioles that lead to alviolar capillaries consrtict?
    When O2 is low.
  87. Respiratory Centers
    include 3 pairs of nuclei in the reticular formation of the pons & medulla oblongata
  88. include 3 pairs of nuclei in the reticular formation of the pons & medulla oblongata
    Respiratory Centers
  89. The 3 pairs of nuclei in the respiratory centers...
    regulate the respiratory muscles & control the respiratory rate & depth of breathing.
  90. regulate the respiratory muscles & control the respiratory rate & depth of breathing.
    The 3 pairs of nuclei in the respiratory centers...
  91. Respiratory Rhythmicity Centers
    • 1) located in the medulla oblongata
    • 2) set the basic pace for respiration
  92. 1) located in the medulla oblongata
    2) set the basic pace for respiration
    Respiratory Rhythmicity Centers
  93. Inflation Reflex
    prevents overexpansion of the lungs during forced breathing
  94. prevents overexpansion of the lungs during forced breathing
    Inflation Reflex
  95. Deflation Reflex
    stimulates inspiration when the lungs are collapsing
  96. stimulates inspiration when the lungs are collapsing
    Deflation Reflex
  97. Chemoreceptor reflexes respond to...
    changes in the pH, PO2, & PCO2 of the blood & cerebrospinal fluid.
  98. changes in the pH, PO2, & PCO2 of the blood & cerebrospinal fluid.
    Chemoreceptor reflexes respond to...
  99. Conscious & unconscious thought processes...
    can affect respiration by affecting the respiratory centers or the motor neurons that control respiratory muscles.
  100. can affect respiration by affecting the respiratory centers or the motor neurons that control respiratory muscles.
    Conscious & unconscious thought processes...
  101. Carina
    where the trachea splits into the left & right primary bronchi
  102. where the trachea splits into the left & right primary bronchi
    Carina

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