guytonch1.txt

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Author:
adamarine
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87177
Filename:
guytonch1.txt
Updated:
2011-05-22 14:39:58
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homeostasis
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ch1guyton
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  1. What is the goal of physiology?
    Understand fx of living organisms & their parts
  2. What is a distinguishing feature of physiology?
    Integrates fx of all body parts to understand fx of entire body
  3. What are the living units of the body?
    Cells
  4. How is energy released from the macronutrients that is required for normal functioning of cells?
    O2 combines with breakdown products of them that releases energy
  5. Where are the cells bathed?
    Extracellular fluid
  6. T/F Most cells have the ability to reproduce?
    T
  7. All organs & tissues perform fx that help to maintain the constituents of ECF relatively constant, what is this condition termed?
    Homeostasis
  8. How is ECF transported in the body?
    • Circulatory system
    • Mvmt of fluid btwn cap & cells
  9. What happens as blood passes through the capillaries?
    Lrg portion diffuses back & forth into ISF btwn cells which allows for exchange of nutrients
  10. What is the respiratory systems main goal in contributing to homeostasis?
    O2 delivery to body while removing Co2
  11. What is the GI systems main goal in contributing to homeostasis?
    Digests food & absorbs nutrients into the ECF
  12. Why is the liver so important?
    Changes the chemical comp of substances to more usable forms & stores them until they are needed
  13. Which system provides protection of internal organs & aids in body support?
    Musculoskeletal
  14. What systems are involved with the removal of metabolic end products?
    • Respiratory
    • Kidneys
    • Liver
  15. What produces Co2?
    Cells
  16. How does the respiratory system expel Co2 from the body?
    It gets released from the blood into alveoli which then gets expelled into the external environment
  17. What excretes most of the waste products but not Co2?
    Kidneys
  18. How do the kidneys play a major role in regulating the ECF to maintain homeostasis?
    They control the excretion of salts, water, waste products from cells
  19. Do the kidneys regulate blood volume & pressure?
    Yes
  20. What eliminates certain waste products produced in the body as well as toxic substances that are ingested?
    Liver
  21. What plays a major role in the regulation of body functions?
    Nervous & Endocrine systems
  22. Which part of the nervous system controls the fx of many of the internal organs?
    ANS
  23. Does the endocrine or nervous system allow us to sense our external & internal environment?
    Nervous
  24. What controls many of the metabolic fx of our cells such as growth, metabolism & reproduction?
    Endocrine
  25. What is secreted into the bloodstream & carried to tissues to help regulate cell fx?
    Hormones
  26. Which two systems play an important role in the protection of our bodies?
    Immune & Integumentary
  27. How does the skin protect our bodies?
    • Protects from injury
    • Defense against foreign invaders
    • Protects underlying tissues against dehydration
  28. T/F The skin has NO regulation in determining body temp?
    F-skin does serve to regulate BT
  29. How do most control systems of the body operate by?
    Negative FB
  30. A high concentration of CO2 in ECF increases pulmonary vent which decreases Co2 toward normal levels, What is this an example of?
    Negative FB
  31. How is the Gain calculated for NF?
    Correction/Error
  32. Which control systems anticipate changes?
    Feed-forward
  33. The brain uses what type of control system to cause muscle contractions?
    Feed-forward
  34. What is adaptive control?
    Delayed NF in that the brain will correct any inappropriate movements by correcting the feed forward signals to muscles the next time that particular movement is needed
  35. Which type of control system can cause vicious cycles & death however can be useful at times?
    Positive FB
  36. A severe hemorrhage may lower BP so much that blood flow to heart is insuffient to maintain normal cardiac pumping which results in BP falling even lower causing more weakness to heart. What are we talking about?
    Positive FB
  37. When does the body us positive FB to its advantage?Explain
    • Generation of nerve signals
    • Nerve fiber stimulated-Na ions leak into cell which causes more channels to open which allows for even more Na ions to leak inside which changes membrane potential & will keep going until an action potential is generated

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