Chap 4.5 Vocab

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Chap 4.5 Vocab
2010-03-01 20:20:26
Life Science

vocab to know for the chapter 4.5 test
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  1. genetic code
    the amino acids and stop signals that are coded for by each of the possible mRNA codons
  2. gene
    a section of DNA on a chromosome used for making specific proteins
  3. stop codon
    indicates where protein production should stop
  4. start codon
    • indicates where protein production should start
    • - always AUG
    • - codes for the amino acid "Met"
  5. RNA(ribonucleic acid)
    • a nucleic acid similar to DNA in three main ways:
    • 1) RNA is a single sttrand
    • 2) uses the base uracil instead of thymine
    • 3) contains ribose instead of deoxyribose
  6. nucleotide
    • made up of three parts:
    • 1) sugar- deoxyribose
    • 2) phospate group
    • 3) nitrogen base
    • - adenine
    • -guanine
    • -cytosine
    • -thymine
  7. transcription
    when information on the DNA is transferred to mRNA
  8. gene expression
    processing information from DNA to proteins
  9. pyrimidenes
    • single rings
    • -thymine
    • -cytosine
  10. tRNA(transfer RNA)
    acts as an interpreter molecule
  11. mutation
    a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome
  12. translation
    when information on the mRNA is used to make a protein
  13. anticodon
    a three nucleotide sequence on a tRNA that is complimentary to a codon
  14. mRNA (messenger RNA)
    an RNA used as a blueprint for a protein
  15. double helix
    two strands of DNA twisted together
  16. codon
    a three nucleotide sequence on an mRNA that is complimentary to an anticodon and serves as the instructions for making a protein
  17. replication
    the process of synthesizing a new strand of DNA
  18. rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
    becomes part of the ribosome
  19. purines
    • double rings
    • -adenine
    • -guanine