MCAT - Bio - Molecular Bio

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Author:
megminkey
ID:
87201
Filename:
MCAT - Bio - Molecular Bio
Updated:
2011-05-22 22:08:29
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BIO Lipids Proteins
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cards for MCAT studies. Bio- Lipids Proteins
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  1. Any biological molecule that has low solubility in water is . .
    a lipid
  2. The building blocks for most complex lipids are. . .
    fatty acids.
  3. fatty acid structure:
  4. Triacylglycerol (Triglyceride) structure:
  5. The main functions of triacylglycerols are . .
    • 1) to store Energy
    • and
    • 2) as thermal, insulating padding
  6. Adipocytes are. . .
    fat cells.
  7. Adipocytes cytoplasm contains mostly . . .
    triglycerides.
  8. Phospholipids structure:
  9. Phospholipids function is . . .
    as the main component of the membranes, separating aqueous solutions from other aqueous solutions.
  10. A term that means a molecule has polar and nonpolar parts is . . .
    amphipatic.
  11. Glycolipids structure:
  12. Glycoplipids functions are . . .
    • 1)Energy storage and
    • 2)markers for cellular recognition.
  13. Steroid Structure
  14. Steroids primary function is to
    regulate metabolic activities.
  15. Terpenes are
    made up of units of isoprene and include vitamin A.
  16. Eicosanoids include. . .
    prostaglandins, thromnoxanes, and leukotrienes.
  17. Eicosanoids function as. . .
    local hormones.
  18. Lipids are transported in the blood via . . .
    lipoproteins.
  19. lipoproteins contain a . . .
    lipid core surrounded by phopholipids and apoproteins (these make them soluble in aqeous environments).
  20. Types of lipoproteins include. . .
    • Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
    • Low density lipoproteins (LDL)
    • High density lipoproteins (HDL)
  21. Proteins are built from amino acids that are linked by peptide bonds.
    Proteins are built from amino acids that are linked by peptide bonds.
  22. Primary protein structure refer to
    the number and sequence of amino acids in a poplypeptide.
  23. Secondary protein structure refers to local regular sub structures, such as alpha-helixes and beta sheets.
    Secondary protein structure refers to local regular sub structures, such as alpha-helixes and beta sheets.
  24. alpha helix and beta-sheets are formed by . . .
    hydrogen bonds between the N-H and the C=O.
  25. Teritary structure refers . . .
    to the 3D shape of the protein (the alpha helices and the beta sheets are folded to form a globule).
  26. When the conformation of a protein is disrupted this is refered to as. . .
    denaturation.
  27. The denaturing agent urea. . .
    disrupts H bonds.
  28. The denaturing agent salt or a change in pH . . .
    disrupts electrostatic bonds(ionic).
  29. The denaturing agent mercaptoethanol . . .
    disrupts disulfide bonds.
  30. The denaturing agents in the class of organic solvents . . .
    disrupts hydrophobic forces.
  31. The denaturing agent of heat. . .
    disrupts all the forces that create tertiary structure.
  32. Tertiary structure is caused by 5 forces.
    • 1) covalent disulfide bonds (via cytstines interactations)
    • 2)electrostatic or ionic bonds between acidic and basic side chains.
    • 3)Hydrogen bonds
    • 4)van der Waals forces
    • 5)hydrophobic side chains pushes away from water
    • (proline also disrupts the beta and alpha conformations)
  33. Two types of proteins. . .
    globular (functional) and structural (maintain structure).
  34. Carbohydrates=
    Carbons + H2O
  35. glucose (most common carb) has two . . .
    anomers. ring conformations that it favors in aqeous solution. (alpha and beta glucose).
  36. alpha-glucose
  37. beta-glucose
  38. To store energy glucose is polymerized by ATP to. .
    glycogen in the liver.
  39. Oxidation of glucose forms. . .
    ATP.
  40. Two forms of starch are . . .
    amylose (isomer of cellulose with alpha linkages) and amylopectin (resembles glycogen with beta linkages).
  41. glycogen structure
  42. Starch structure
  43. Celluose structure
  44. The three components of nucelotides are. . .
    • 1)5 carbon sugar
    • 2)a nitrogneous base (such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine (RNAuracil))
    • 3) a phosphate group
  45. nucelotides are joined together by
    phosphodiester bonds between the phosphate group of one nucelotide and the 3rd carbon of the pentose of the other nucelotide.
  46. Adenine goes with
    Thymine or Uracil. with 2 hydrogen bonds.
  47. Guanine bonds with. . .
    • Cytosine through three Hydrogen bonds.
  48. Minerals are
    dissolved inorganic ions that are inside and outside of the cell
  49. Mineral functions to. . .
    make concentration gradients for transport and signaling, act as cofactors in molecular functions, and as structure for matrixes.

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