FINAL CH 12-26

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leti563
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FINAL CH 12-26
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2011-05-23 02:37:58
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FINAL STUDY
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  1. SKIN Functions (5)
    • Regulate body temp
    • Maintain electrolyte and fluid balance
    • Protection
    • Excretion
    • Metabolism (Vitamin D)
  2. Pruritis
    Itching
  3. Antipruritics (4)
    • Drying agents
    • Antihistamines
    • Topical Corticosteroids
    • Local Anesthetics
  4. Antipruritics Drying agents
    Zinc Oxide- Calamine Lotion
  5. Antipruritics Antihistamines
    dyphenhydramine (Benadryl)
  6. dyphenhydramine
    Benadryl
  7. Antipruritics Topical Corticosteroids
    hydrocortisone (Cortaid)
  8. hydrocortisone
    Cortaid
  9. Antipruritics Local Anesthetics
    Caines
    • Benzocaine (Chloraseptic)
    • lidocaine
  10. Emollients
    • lanolin
    • aloe vera

    Help retain skin moisture.
  11. Keratolytics
    • podophyllin solution
    • salicylic acid

    Uses: warts, acne
  12. Scabiesides/ Pediculocides
    lindane (Kwell)

    • Organic pestisides
    • Contraindicated in pregnancy
  13. Fungal Infections
    • Tinea
    • Candida
  14. Tinea Corpis
    Ringworm
  15. Tinea Cruris
    JockItch
  16. Oral Candidiasis
    Thrush
  17. Anifungal Drugs for Tinea
    • ketoconazole- (Nizoral) Ringworm
    • tolnaftate-(Tinactin) Athletes foot
  18. ketaconazole
    Nizoral (Ringworm)
  19. Antifungal drugs for Candida
    • clotrimazole- (Lotrimin) vaginitis
    • nystatin- (mycostatin) Thrush
  20. clotrimazole
    (Lotrimin) Vaginitis
  21. nystatin
    (Mycostatin) Thrush
  22. Viral Skin Infections
    Herpes Zoster- Shingles
  23. Antiviral Drugs
    • acyclovir (Zovirax)
    • valacyclovir (Valtrex)
  24. Acyvlovir (Zovirax)
    decreases duration of viral shedding
  25. valacyclovir (Valtrex)
    • oral HSV 2
    • Long term for suppressive therapy
  26. Antiseptics
    Control or inhibit growth of bacteria
  27. Disinfectants
    Kill bacteria on contact
  28. Antiseptics
    providone iodine solution (Betadine)
  29. Burn Medications
    silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene cream)
  30. Acne type 1
    Type 1 benzoyl peroxide (Clearasil)
  31. Acne type 2
    clindamycin (Celocin0T)
  32. Acne type 4
    Acne Vulgaris
    Oral Retinoids (Isotretinoin) Accutane
  33. Insensible fluid loss
    Fluid loss that cannot be measured.
  34. DIuretics (Diuresis)
    More than >3ml/min or >4.5 lt/day
  35. thiazide diuretics
    lowers blood pressure
  36. Congestive heart failure treatment
    Loop Diuretics
  37. Diuretics
    Potassium Sparing agents
    spironolactone (Aldactone)
  38. Ostotic Diuretics
    Head injuries

    mannitol (Osmitol)
  39. GOUT
    Inflammatory disease in which crystals of Uric Acid deposit in a joint.
  40. Medications ofr GOUT
    • indomethacin (Indocin)
    • allopurinol (Zyloprim)
  41. Incontinence
    The inability to control bladder functions.
  42. Incontinence overflow
    • The inability to empty properly.
    • Urethral blockage
  43. Incontinence Stress
    Increased abdominal pressure
  44. Incontinence Urge
    Bladdder oversensitivity from infection.
  45. Anticholinergic effects
    Block parasympathetic receptors in the bladder.
  46. Urinary Analgesics
    Orange Urine

    phenazopyradine (Pyridium)
  47. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH)
    Abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland.
  48. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
    • finasteride (Proscar)
    • tamsulosin (Flomax)
  49. Histamine 1
    Allergies
  50. Histamine 2
    Stomach Acid
  51. Gastric Protection
    • Gastric Acid
    • Mucous
    • Epithelial Cells
  52. Gastric Acid
    Kills many infectious organinsms. But also harmful to unprotected digestive tissue.
  53. Mucous
    Protects the lining of the GI tract from the gastric acid.
  54. Epithelial Cells
    Constantly forming new cells that line the stomach.
  55. PUD
    Peptic Ulcer Disease
  56. GERD
    Gastro- Esophogeal Reflux Disease
  57. Drugs for the Stomach
    • Antacids
    • Histamine-2 blocking agents
    • Proton pump inhibitors
    • Gastro mucosal agents
  58. Antacids
    • aluminum (Amphojel)
    • calcium carbonate (Tums)
  59. Antacids Interactions
    Antacids decrease effectiveness of almost ALL other medications.
  60. Histamine-2 Blocking agents
    "tidines"
    • cimetidine (Tagamet)
    • ranitadine (Zantac)
  61. H-2 Blockers SE's:
    May ecrease intrinsic factor production.
  62. Proton Pump Inhibitors
    "prazoles"
    • Omeprazole (Prilosec)
    • rabeprazole (Aciphex)
  63. Proton pump inhibitors SE's of long term use:
    Pernicuous Anemia
  64. Gastric Mucosal Agents
    • Misoprostol (Cytotec)
    • sucralfate (Carafate)
  65. Cytotec SE's:
    • Uterine contractions
    • Spontaneous abortion
  66. Antidiarrheal agents
    diphenoxylate with atropine (Lomotil)loperamide (Imodium)
  67. Antiflatulants
    simethicone (Mylicon, Gas-X)
  68. Constipation results from
    • Improper Diet
    • Insufficient fluid intake
    • Lack of activity
  69. Bulk forming laxatives
    psyllium (Metamucil)

    Seeds swell to form a gel that softens stool.
  70. Stool Softeners
    ducosate (Colace)
  71. Saline Cathartics
    Magnesium Citrate
  72. Stimulant Cathartics
    • bisacodyl (Dulcolax)
    • cascara (Castor Oil)
    • senna (Senakot)
  73. Osmotic Laxatives
    sorbitol (D-Glucitol)
  74. Antiemetics
    • ondansetron (Zofran)
    • prochlorperazine (Compazine)

    Indications: Nausea, vommitting, motion sickness
  75. Classifications of Bacteria
    • Aerobic
    • Anaerobic
  76. Aerobic Bacteria
    Oxygen neccessary for normal metabolism.
  77. Anaerobic Bacteria
    • Oxygen not required.
    • May be toxic
  78. Antibiotics
    • Broad Spectrum
    • Narrow Spectrum
  79. Pharmacodynamics
    • Bacteriostatic
    • Bacteriacidal
  80. Pharmacodynamics
    Bacteriostatic
    drug that inhibits the growth of an infectious organism.
  81. Pharmacodynamics Bacteriocidal
    Drug that kills the infectious organism.
  82. What causes resistance of antibiotics
    • Incomplete Treatment
    • Frequent overuse
  83. Resisance
    Nosocomial Infections
    Hospital acquired often resistant to at least ine drug.
  84. Antibiotics Adverse Reactions
    Direct Toxicity
    Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hepatoxicity, blood abnormalities, phototoxicity
  85. Antibiotics Adverse Toxicity
    Indirect Toxicity
    Superinfection: NEW infection caused disruption of normal balance.
  86. Aminoglycosides
    Short term treatment of serious infecitons.

    gentamcin 1964
  87. Cephalasporins
    • cephalexin (Keflex) - 1st generation
    • cefaclor (Ceclor)- 2nd Generation
    • ceftriaxone (Rocephin)- 3rd Generation
  88. Macrolides
    • erythromycin (E-mycin)
    • azithromycin (Zithromax)
  89. Penicillin
    ampicillin (Principen)- Broad Spectrum
  90. Quinolones
    • ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
    • levofloxacin (Levaquin)
  91. Tetracycline
    doxycycline (Vibramycin)

    SE's: Yellowing of the teeth

    Antagonistic: w oral BC pills
  92. Systemic antifungal drugs
    • amphotericin B (Fungizone)
    • fluconazole (Diflucan)
  93. TB Treatment
    • izoniazid (INK) alone or with
    • rifampin (Rifadin)
  94. metronidazole (Flagyl)
    Protozoal infections
    • Dysentery
    • trichomonas (STD)
    • giardia (travelers)

    SE's: Abdominal pain, metallic taste.
  95. Antiviral Drugs
    amantadine (Symmetrel)

    Indicaitons: INFLUENZA VIRAL INFECTIONS
  96. Sulfonamides
    • sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim =
    • co-trimoxazole (Bactrim, Septra)
  97. Opiate Analgesics
    Natural opioids
    • morphine sulfate (Morphine)
    • codeine (Codeine)

    Controlled drigs Sched 2-3
  98. Opiate Analgesics
    Synthetic opioids
    • hydrocodone (Lorcel)
    • meperidine (Demerol)
    • oxycodone (Oxycontin)

    Very high abuse potential
  99. Opiate Antagonists
    Antidote
    nalaxone (Narcan)
  100. Coanalgesics
    Non Opiate drugs combined with opiates to potentiate analgesics effect.
  101. Non opiate Analgesics
    Salicylates
    acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin ASA)

    ASA + acetominophen + Caffeine= Excedrine
  102. Hpw do NSAID's work?
    They block the formation pf PROSTAGLANDIN, a chemical that produces inflamation and pain of many conditions.
  103. Prostaglandins are made using
    cyclo oxygenase (COX) enzymes
  104. What happens when COX 1 is inhibited?
    Stomach becomes vulnerable to bleeding.
  105. Traditional NSAID's
    • ibuprofen
    • indomethacin (Indocin)
    • ketorolac (toradol)
  106. COX-2 Inhibitors
    Leaves COX 1 unblocked, thus protects the gastric mucosa

    celecoxib (Celebrex)
  107. Non Opiate Analgesics
    acetominophen 1956
    No antiinflammatory effects
  108. Non opiate analgesics
    tramadol (Ultram)
    mimics opiates but it is not a narcotic
  109. Non opiate analgesics 4
    • Salicyclates
    • Anti inflammatory
    • acetominophen
    • tramadol
  110. Anti Migraine Agents
    sumatripan (Imitrex)
  111. 'sedatives/Hypnotics
    Primarily used to induce sleep.

    diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Nytol)
  112. Sedatives/Hypnotics
    Barbiturates
    phenobarbitol (Luminol)

    SE's: Respiratory Depression
  113. Sedatives/Hypnotics
    Benzodiazepines
    • midazolam (Versed)
    • lorazepam (Ativan)
  114. Psychotropic Drugs Affect
    • Mental alertness
    • Emotions
    • Behavior
  115. CNS Stimulants
    • Indrease activity of brain and spinal cord
    • Originally used for obesity and depression.
    • Now mainly used for att. deficit syndromes.
    • High potential for abuse.
  116. CNS Stimulants
    amphetamine (Adderall)
  117. CNS Stimulant
    Rittalin
    methylpenidate
  118. Antidepressants
    • venlafaxine (Effexor)
    • fluoxetine (Prozac)
  119. Antidepressants
    bupropion (Wellbutrin)
    usefull in smoking cessation
  120. Antidepressants
    trazodone (Desyrel)
    Useful in agitated depresions
  121. Antimanic Agents
    lithium (Eskalith)

    SE's: Tremors, excessive thirst. (polydipsia)
  122. Tricyclic Antidepressants
    amitriptyline (Elavil)
  123. Antidepressants
    Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI's)
    Breaks down dopamine and norepinephrine.
  124. Antidepressants
    MAOI's used today
    phenelzine (Nardil)
  125. Anxiety
    A response to an enviromental Stressor

    Most common symptom : FEAR
  126. Anxiolytic Agents
    Benzodiazepines
    • diazepam (Valium)
    • aprazolam (Xanax)
  127. Antipsychotics and Tranquilizers
    • chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
    • olanzapine (Zyprexa)
  128. chlopromazine
    Thorazine
  129. olanzapine
    Zyprexa
  130. The master gland
    The pituitary gland
  131. Pituitary Gland secretes Regulating hormones to which endocrine glands?
    • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
    • Somotatropin (Humsn growth hormone)
  132. Cortisol is knows as which hormone
    Stress
  133. Adrenal insufficiency
    Adddisons Disease
  134. Excess Cortisol
    Cushing's Syndrome
  135. corticosterois Agents
    SE's:
    • Delayed wound healing
    • Increased risk of infection
    • Osteaperosis (bone loss)
    • Hyperglycemia and diabetes
    • Mood swings/ Depression
  136. Corticosterois Agents
    Precautions:
    • Avoid prolonged use
    • Discontinue Gradually
  137. Conricosteroid Agents
    • hydrocortisone (Sulo- Cortef)
    • prednisone (Deltasone)
  138. hydrocortisone
    (Sulo-Cortef)
  139. prednisone
    (Deltasone)
  140. Thyroid Gland
    hypothyroidism
    in an adult called Myxedema
  141. Antithyroid agents
    hyperthyroidism - Graves disease
  142. methimazole- (Tapezole)
  143. Insulin
    hormone produced in the pancreas
  144. Diabetes Mellitus
    juvenile diabetes
    Inadequate insulin production Type 1
  145. Diabetes type 2
    Insulin resistance at the tissue level
  146. Diabetes Mellitus
    • No cure
    • Long term efffects:
    • -cardiovascular disease
    • -Kidney failure
    • -Blindness (#1 cause in the us)
    • -Nerve Damage
  147. Insulin preparations
    • regular insulin (Humulin- R)
    • NPH/ regular insulin (Novolin 70/30)
  148. Oral Antidiabetic agents
    • glipizide (Glucotrol)
    • glyburide (Diabeta)
    • metformin (Glucophage)
  149. Cardiovascular Drugs
    SE's:
    • Hypotension (Low blood pressure)
    • Bradychardia (slow heart rate)
    • Tachycardia (Fast heart rate)
  150. Coronary Vasodilators
    Nitrates
    nitroglycerin (Nitrostat, Nitro-Bid)

    isosorbide (Isodril)
  151. Heart Failure
    the inability of the heart to provide enough circulation of blood to meet the oxygen and nutrient requirements of the boddy.
  152. Drugs used to treat heart failure
    • diuretics (Loop)
    • Inotropic Agents
    • Beta Blockers
  153. Diuretics (Loop)
    Decrease fluid accumulation in the lungs
  154. Inotropic agents
    Increase heart muscle contraction
  155. Beta Blockers
    Improve heart perfomance
  156. Treatment for heart failure
    Inotropic Agents
    digoxin (Lanoxin)
  157. Treatment for heat Failure
    Beta Blockers
    metoprolol (Lopresor)
  158. Hypertension
    140/90
  159. Antihypertensive Agents
    enalepril (Vasotec)

    Se's: Dry mouth
  160. Antiarrythmic agents
    Beta Blockers
    • propranalol (Inderal)
    • atenolol (Tenormin)
  161. Calcium Channel Blockers
    diltiazem (Cardizem)
  162. Antiarrythmic Agents
    procainamide (Pronestyl)
  163. Antillepemic agents
    statin Drugs
  164. atorvastatin (Lipitor)
    simvistatin (Zocor)

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