Ch 23 ML.txt

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  1. The ____ maintain fhe purity and chemixal constancy of blood and other extracellular body fluids
  2. The kidneys filter many liters of fluid from the blood, sending toxins, metabolic wastes, excess water and excess ions out of the body in _____ while returning needed substances
  3. The main products excreted in urine are three nitrogenous compounds -- what are they ?
    • Urea
    • Uric acid
    • Creatinine
  4. ___ derived from the breakdown of amino acids during normal recycling of the body's proteins
  5. ___ ____ results from the turnover of nucleic acids
    Uric acid
  6. ____ is formed by the breakdown of creative phosphate, a molecule in muscle that stores energy for the manufacture of ATP
  7. The kidneys also regulate the ____ and chemical makeup of the blood by maintaing the proper balance of water and salts and of acids and bases.
  8. Besides the urine forming kidneys the other organs of the urinary system are the what ? 3 of them
    • Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
  9. The ___ are tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder -- a temporary storage sac for urine
  10. The ___ is a tube that carries urine from the bladder to the boy exterior
  11. About ____ of the hearts systemic output reaches the kidneys via the large ___ ___.
    1/4 /2 renal arteries
  12. The main structural and functional unit of the kidney is the ___ ___.
    Uriniferous tubule.
  13. More than a ____ of uriniferous tubule are crowded together within each kidney
  14. The ____ ____ produces urine through three interacting mechanisms :
    ___, ___, and ___.
    • Filtration
    • Resporatio
    • Secretion
  15. In ____ a filtrate of the blood leaves the kidney capillaries and enters the uriniferous tubule
  16. During ____ most of the nutrients, water, and essential ions are recovered from the filtrate and returned to the blood of capillaries in the surrounding connective tissue --99% of the volume of the renal filtrate is reabsorbed in this manner.
  17. ____ -- moves additional undesirable molecules into the tubule from the blood of surrounding capillaries
  18. Each ___ ___ has two major parts :
    A urine forming nephron, where filtration, respiration, and secretion occur
    A collecting duct, which concentrates urine by removing water from it.
    Uriniferous tubules
  19. Each ___ is composed of the renal corpuscle and a tubular section consisiting of the proximal convoulted tubule, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule.
  20. The first part of the nephron, where filtration occurs, is the spherical ___ ___.
    Renal corpuscle
  21. Renal corpucles occur strictly in the cortex. They consist of a tuft of capillaries called a ____ surrounded by a cup-shaped, hollow ____ ____.
    Glomerulus, Glomerular capsule.
  22. These capillaries are highly porous, allowing large quantitites of fluid and small molecules to pass from the capillary blood into the hollow interior of the glomerular capsule, the ____ ____.
    Capsular space
  23. This fluid is the filtrate that is ultimately processed into urine. Only about _% of fluid leaves the glomerulus and enters the capsular space; _% remains in the blood within this capilary.
    20%, 80%.
  24. The glomerulus capsule's visceral layer clings to the gomerulus and consists of unusual, branching epithelial cells called ___.
  25. These brances of the octopus-like podocytes end in ___ ___, which interdigitate with one as they surround the glomerular caplillaries.
    Foot processes, or pedicels ("little feet")
  26. The filtrate passes into capsular space through thin clefts between the foot processes, called ___ ___.
    Filtration slits or slit pores.
  27. After forming in the renal corpuscle, the filtrate porceeds into the long tubular section of the nephron, which begins as the elaborately coiled ___ ___ ___, makes a hairpin loop called the ___ _ ___, winds and twists again as the ___ ___ ___, and ends by joining a collecting duct.
    Proximal convoluted tubule, loops of Henle, distal convoluted tubule.
  28. The ___ ___ ___, confied entirely to the renal cortex, is the most active in resorption and secretion.
    Proximal convoluted tubule.
  29. These microvilli increase the surface area of these cells tremendously, maximizing their capacity for resorbing ___, ___, and ___ from the filtrate.
    Water, ions, solutes.
  30. The U-shaped loop of Henle, consists of a(n) ___ ___ and a(n) ___ ___.
    Descending limb, ascending limb.
  31. Like the promixmal convoluted tubule, the ___ ___ ___, is confined to the renal cortex, has walls of simple cuboidal epithelium, and is specialized for the selective secretion and resorption of ions.
    Distal convuluted tubule.
  32. Urine passes from the distal tubules of the nephrons in to the ____ ____, each of which receives urine from serveral nephrons and runs straight through the cortex into deep medulla.
    Collecting ducts.
  33. The most important role of the collecting ducts, however, is to ___ ___ ___, a function they share with the distal tubules of the nephron.
    Conserve body fluids.
  34. When the body must conserve water, the posterior part of the pituitary gland secretes ____ ____, which increases the permeabilitiy of the collecting ducts and distal tubules to water.
    Antidiurectic hormone (ADH)
  35. ____ inhibits the release of antidiuretic hormone, resulting in reduced water resorption from the renal tubules, the production of a copious amount of dilute urine, and the potential for dehydration.
  36. The capillaries of the ____ produce the filtrate that moves through the rest of the uriniferous tubule and becomes urine.
  37. The glomerulus differs from all other capillary beds in the body: It is both fed and drained by ___.
  38. The ___ ___ arise from the cortical radiate arteries that run through the renal cortex. Because arterioles are high-resistence vessels and the ___ ___ is narrower than the ___ ___, the blood pressure in the glomerulus is extraordinarily high for a capillary bed and easily forces the filtrate out of the blood into the glomerular capsule.
    Afferent arterioles, efferent arterioles, afferent arterioles.
  39. The kidneys generate _ liter(s) of this filtrate every _ minute(s), but as previously mentioned, only _% ends up as urine; and the other _% is resorbed by the uriniferous tubule and returned to the blood in the peritubular capillary beds.
    1 liter, 8 minutes, 1%, 99%.
  40. The ___ ___ arise from the efferent arterioles draining the cortical glomeruli.
    Peritubular capillaries.
  41. Nephrons associate closely with two capillary beds, the ___ and the ___ ___. Juxtamedullary nephrons also associate with the capillary-like ___ ___.
    Glomerulus, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta.
  42. The ___ ____ are adapted for absorption: they are low pressure, porous capillaries that readily absorb solutes and water from the tubule cellsafter these substaces are resorbed from the filtrate.
    Peritubular capillaries.
  43. All molecules that are ___ by the nephrons into the urine are from the blood of nearby peritubular capiliaries.
  44. Leaving the kidneys, the next structures alon the urinary tract are the ___.
  45. The ___ are slender tubes, about _ cm. long, that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
    Ureters, 25 cm. (10 inches)
  46. The ___ ___, a collapsible, muscular sac that stores and expels urine, lies inferior to the peritoneal cavity on the pelvic floor, just posterior to the pubic symphysis.
    Urinary bladder
  47. When the ___ becomes ___, it becomes firm and can be palpated through the anterior abdominal wall just superior to the pubic symphysis.
    Bladder, full.
  48. ___, is the act of emptying the bladder.
    Micturition (also called voiding or urination).
  49. Micturition is brought about by the contraction of the bladder's ___ ___, assisted by the muscles of the ___ ___.
    Detrusor muscle, abdominal wall.
  50. As urine accumulates int he bladder, distension of the bladder wall activates stretch receptors, which send sensory impulses through ___ ___ ___ to the sacral region of the spinal cord, and then up to the micturition center in the dorsal part of the pons.
    Visceral sensory neurons (blue neurons Figure 23.17 pg 701)
  51. The neurons in the micturitions center in the lower pons signal the ____ ____ that stimulate contraction of the detrusor muscle, thereby emptying the bladder.
    Parasympathetic neurons (purple neurons Figure 23.17 pg 701)
  52. The ___ ___ that pathways to the bladder, prevent micturiton by relaxing the detrusor muscle - are inhibited.
    Sympathetic neurons (green neurons Figure 23.17 pg 701)
  53. Most ___ ___ ___ occur in sexually active young women. Intercourse drives bacterior from the vagina and the external genital region.
    Urinary tract infections (gross!!!)
  54. The use of ___ magnifies the problem because they tend to kill normal resident bacteria and allow pathogenic fecal bacteria to colonize the vagina.
  55. ____ ____, a normal resident bacterium of the lower digestive tract that seldom causes problems there, produces _% of all urinary tract infections.
    Escherichia coli, 80%.
  56. Urinary tract infections occur in about _% of all women. Infection of the blader, called ____, can spread superiorly to infect the ureters and kidneys, causing ___ and ___.
    40%, cystitis, pyelitis, pyelonephritis.
  57. Symptoms of a urinary tract infections include: (4 symptoms)
    • A burning sensation during micturition,
    • Increased urgency and frequency of micturition,
    • Fever,
    • Sometimes cloudy or blood-tinged urine.
  58. When the kidney are involved with a urinary tract infection, __ __ and __ ___ often occur as well.
    Back pain, servere headache.
  59. Most urinary tract infections are easily cured by __.
  60. ___, ____, or ___ ___ ___ in the urine crystallize and precipitate in the calices or renal pelvis, forming kidney stones, or renal calculi ("little stones").
    Calcium, magnesium, uric acid salts.
  61. ___ ___ form in _% of men and _% of women in North America.
    Kidney stones, 12%, 5%.
  62. Most calculi are smaller than _ mm in diameter and thus can pass through the urniary tract withought causing serious problems. The calculi, however, cause pain when they obstruct a ____, thereby blocking the drainage of urine and increasing intrarenal pressure.
    5 mm, ureter.
  63. ___ ___, which accounts for about _% of cancer deaths is __ times more common in men that in women.
    Bladder cancer, 3%, 5.
  64. The most common sign of bladder cancer is?
    Blood in the urine
  65. This form of cancer may be induced by organic carcinogens that are deposited in the urine after being absobred from the environment. Substances linked to bladder cancer include: (3 substances)
    • Tars from tobacco smoke
    • Certain industrial chemicals
    • Some artificial sweeteners
  66. ___ ___ - a cancer arising from the epithelial cells of either uriniferous tubules or the renal pelvis and calices.
    Kidney cancer
  67. Kidney cancer accounts for _% of cancer deaths in the US. Risk Factors for this type of cancer which is twice as common in men as in women, include ___, ___ ___ ___, and perhaps a ___ ___ ___.
    2%, obesity, high blood pressure, high protein diet.
  68. In some cases of kidney cancer, the prognosis is poor, and the average survival time is only _ - _ months.
    12 - 18 months.
  69. About _% of transplanted kidneys come from living donors, and _% come from cadavers (whose kidneys can be maintained for about _ hours after death).
    30%, 70%, 36 hours.
  70. The most common transplant of any other major organ is:
    The kidney transplant
  71. Kidney transplant have a high sucess rate of _% to _% survival after 3 years if from a living donor, and _% if from a cadaver.
    80% to 90%, 70%.
  72. A single kidney is transplanted, because one is sufficient to carry out excretory functions. The ___ kidney is usually left in place.
  73. As with other organ transplants, the recipient must take _____ drugs.
  74. In elderly people, only about _% have histologically normal kidneys, and kidney fuction declinds with advacing age. The kidneys shrink, the nephrons decrease in size and number, and the tubules become less efficient at secretion and reabsorption. By age __, the average rate of filtration is only half that of middle-aged adults.
    3%, 70.
  75. The bladder of an aged person is ___, and the desire to urniate is often ___. Loss of muscle tone in the bladder causes an annoying ___ frequency of urination.
    Shrunken, delayed, increased.
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Ch 23 ML.txt
anatomy flashcards ch 23
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