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What does the endocrine system produce?
What activities/processes are hormones involved in?
Homeostasis, growth, reproduction
A hormone is a chemical that is produced by a cell; it is excreted into the extracellular fluid and acts on a specific target cell or organ to produce a specific activity
Name 4 processes targeted by hormones
- 1. Reproduction
- 2. Growth and development
- 3. Defenses against stress
- 4. Maintenances of blood levels (H2O, electrolytes, nutrients)
Define: Endocrine cell
Pockets of cells that secrete hormones that are found within an organ whose main function is not endocrine in nature (e.g. found in Kidney, small intestine, heart).
Define: Endocrine tissue
Tissues within organs which secrete hormones (even thought organs may have other major functions) (e.g. Pancreases, gonads, hypothalamus)
Define: Endocrine organ
An organ that secretes hormones as its main function
Define: neuroendocrine organ
Has both endocrine and nervous system components (hypothalamus)
What does an Exocrine gland do?
Routes chemical products (not hormones) via a duct to surface or lumen
What does an Endocrine gland do?
Releases hormones into tissue fluids and possibly into the blood stream for transport (major function of gland is hormone release) (e.g. Pituitary, thyroid etc.
What is the messenger for the nervous system?
What is the messenger for the endocrine system?
What are the common targets for the nervous system?
Muscles or glands
What are the common targets for the endocrine system?
What is the time involved for the nervous system?
Response in milliseconds (short lived)
What is the time involved for the endocrine system?
Response varies from seconds to days (more prolonged)
A chemical produced by a cell that is released into extracellular fluid and acts upon another cell, often regulating a metabolic function of that cell. Its function is to act as a messenger which initiates needed functions.
What are the two classes of hormones?
- Amino acid/proteins based
What is the chemical backbone for the amino acid/protein based hormones?
Short chains of amino acids, peptides or proteins
What is the chemical backbone for the steroid based hormones?
What is an example of the amino acid/protein based hormones?
What is an example of a steroid based hormone?
- Gonadal hormones
- Adrenocortical hormones
What are the properties of amino acid/protein based hormones?
- Polar: soluble in aqueous solutions
- Do not travel well thought cell membrane
- Only smallest proteins get into the cells
What are the properties of steroid based hormones?
- Non polar: lipid soluble
- Can travel thought membranes more easily
Where are the receptors found for amino acid/protein based hormones?
On the cell membrane and some one are occasionally found inside the cell
Where are the receptors for the steroid based hormones found?
Inside the cell
Discuss the method by which hormones cause actions to occur? What do hormones change or mediate?
They initiate the synthesis of proteins and can alter proteins to change them from an inactive form to an active form.
Gene Activation Mechanism: Where is the receptor found?
Gene Activation Mechanism: What hormone class generally uses this method?
Gene Activation Mechanism: how is the protein action affected?
More protein is made
cAMP Second Messenger System: Where is the receptor found?
On or in the cell membrane
cAMP Second Messenger System: What hormone class generally uses this method?
cAMP Second Messenger System: how is the protein action affected?
An inactive protein becomes activated
Discuss the specificity of hormones to their receptors.
Hormones act on target cells that are very specific. They search for cells that have receptors for their specific hormone.
List three factors that affect the frequency of hormonal action
- 1. Concentration of the hormone in the bloodstream (controlled by feedback mechanism)
- 2. Frequency of receptor on cell membrane (genetically determined)
- 3. Affinity of hormone to receptor (bond strength) ( chemical property)
Define: Negative feedback
Adequate amount of a substance produced in response to hormone released inhibits further hormone release
Define: Positive feedback
Presence of a substance or stimulus induces production or rerelease of hormones (e.g. oxytocin, suckling (the stimulus) induces release of oxytocin
List three stimulants that are used in feedback mechanisms to signal regulation needs for hormonal production
- 1. Humoral
- 2. Neural
- 3. hormonal
Describe: Humoral stimulation
Presence of a substance produced due to activation of hormone release will act as the stimulus for the feedback mechanism
Describe: Hormonal stimulation
Hormones produces by other endocrine organs stimulate the release of some hormones
Describe: Neural stimulation
Direct influence of nervous system can induce hormone production
What is a target cell?
A cell that a given hormone can influence
List two names for he endocrine gland found in the sella turcica.
- 1. Pituitary gland
- 2. Hypophysis
Describe in detail the location of the pituitary gland.
Located inferior to the hypothalamus in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
Describe: the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
IT is the neurosecratory portion. This means that the nervous system produces hormones that are transported to and released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Describe: The anterior portion of the pituitary gland.
It is the secratory portion. It contains secretory cells that produce he hormones that are released from the anterior pituitary gland.
SON and PVN are both function and deal with the posterior pituitary gland. What do they stand for? Where are they located?
- SON = Supraoptic nuclei.
- PVN = paraventricular nuclei.
- SON is closest to the anterior portion of the pituitary gland.
Describe how you would distinguish between lobes in the histological cross section?
- The anterior lobe is densely cellular � secratory
- The posterior lobe is less cellular � neuro secretory
List the hormones produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
List the hormones produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
- 1. LH
- 2. FSH
- 3. ACTH
- 4. TSG
- 5. GH
- 6. PRL
Anterior lobe hormone stands for what: LH
Anterior lobe hormone stands for what: FSH
Follicle stimulating hormone
Anterior lobe hormone stands for what: ACTH
Anterior lobe hormone stands for what: TSH
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Anterior lobe hormone stands for what: GH
Anterior lobe hormone stands for what: PRL
Regarding hormones produced by the hypothalamus. �Releasing hormones� � what is their function. Give an example.
Made by the hypothalamus, tells the pituitary to release a specific pituitary hormone. GHRF
Regarding hormones produced by the hypothalamus. �Inhibiting hormones� � what is their function. Give an example.
Made by the hypothalamus, tells the pituitary to stop releasing a specific pituitary hormone. GHIF
What is the relationship between the posterior pituitary and the hyothalmus
- 1. Hypothalamic neurons synthesize oxytocin and ADH
- 2. Ocytocin and ADH are transported along the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract to the posterior pituitary
- 3. Oxytocin and ADH are stored in axon terminals in the posterior pituitary
- 4. Oxytocin and ADH are released into the blood when hypothalamic neurons fire
What is the relationship between the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus?
- 1. When appropriately stimulated, hypothalamic neurons secrete releasing and inhibiting hormones into the primary capillary plexus
- 2. Hypothalamic hormones travel thought the portal veins to the anterior pituitary where they stimulate or inhibit release of hormones from the anterior pituitary
- 3. Anterior pituitary hormones are secreted into the secondary capillary plexus
Fill in the blanks in the following statement regarding the roles of the hypothalamus in regulation of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis.
- The hypothalamus produces __1____and _2____ hormones which travel via the ____3______ tract to the primary capillary plexus. The hormones are then shunted via the _____4______veins to the _____5_______________ plexus. Here they come into contact with __6____cells of the anterior lobe of the ___7____. Causing the cells to either __8___ or inhibit the release of specific hormones.
- 1. Releasing
- 2. Inhibiting
- 3. Tubero-hypophyseal
- 4. Hypophyseal portal
- 5. Secondary capillary
- 6. Secratory
- 7. Pituitary
- 8. Release
Discuss the role of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract in the regulation of hormone secretion.
It acts as a neural connection, a nerve bundle between the hypothalamus
Describe the role of the primary and secondary capillary plexuses and the hypophyseal portal veins in hormone secretion
- Primary � communicates inferiorly with the hypophyseal portal veins and the primary and secondary capillary plexus intervening make up the hypophyseal portal system
- This is where the inhibiting and releasing hormones circulate to the anterior pituitary and are then regulated
Hypothyroidism results from:
Thyroid gland defect or inadequate TSH or TRH release
Tropic hormones act on?
Other endocrine organs
Nontrophic hormones act on?
Non endocrine targets
Name the three categories of tropic hormones.
- 1. Thyrotropic
- 2. Gonadotropic
- 3. Corticotropic
Give an example of each of the tropic hormones.
- 1. Thyrotropic - TSH
- 2. Gonadotropic � FSH and LH
- 3. Corticotropic - ACTH
What do each of the tropic hormones act on?
- 1. Thyrotropic - TSH - Thyroid
- 2. Gonadotropic � FSH and LH - gonads
- 3. Corticotropic � ACTH � cortex of adrenal gland
Name the non tropic hormones
- 1. Somatotropic
- 2. Lactotropic
Give examples of each nontropic hormone.
- 1. Somatotropic - GH
- 2. Lactotropic - PRL
What do each of the nontropic hormones act on.
- 1. Somatotropic � GH � broad variety of cells
- 2. Lactotropic - PRL � milk producing cells
Growth hormone � produce by?
Specific secretory cells in anterior pituitary gland
Growth hormone � acts on?
Many types of cells, but especially skeletal and muscular cells.
What do growth hormones cause?
- 1. Increased rate of protein synthesis (cell growth and metabolism)
- 2. Increased rate of fat catabolism (mobilization and utilization)
- 3. Decreased rate of glucose utilization, increased rate of glucose release from glycogen from therefore increased glucose blood levels
- 4. Increased level somatomedin release which increased bone and cartilage growth.
For GH � what is the type of stimulus?
Hormonal and humeral
For GH � what is the type of feedback?
There are three abnormalities involving the amount of growth hormone produced. Name them.
- 1. Pituitary dwarfism
- 2. Pituitary giantism
- 3. Acromegaly
For each of the three abnormalities, describe the hormone level, when it happens and the result.
- 1. Pituitary dwarfism � NO GH - childhood - short
- 2. Pituitary giantism � Increased GH - childhood - tall
- 3. Acromegaly � Increased GH � childhood � large hands/face and bones w/o growth plates
Which hormone stimulates milk production?
- Which organ secretes prolactin?
Where are the target cells for prolactin located?
- � Prolactin Inhibitory Hormone
- � Dominant in males
- � Inhibits production of PRL by anterior pituitary gland
- � Follows the rhythm of estrogen concentration In females
- � Promotes anterior pituitary to release PRL
TSH stand for?
Thyroid stimulating hormone
TSH is produced by the ________________ and acts on the ____________ causing it to produce ___________.
- Anterior pituitary gland
- Thyroid gland
- Thyroid hormone
Outline the feedback mechanism for TSH.
Hypothalamus stimulates TRH, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce TSH which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones which stimulates metabolic activities.
TSH is regulated by what type of feedback, and is stimulus is?
Break down ACTH � what do each part of it mean?
- Adreno - adrenal gland
- Cortico � cortex
- Tropic � to act on
Outline the feedback mechanism for ACTH
Hypothalamus stimulates CRF, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH, which then causes the adrenal cortex to produce glucocoticoids
What do LH and FSH have in common?
- 1. Produced by the anterior pituitary gland
- 2. Activated at puberty
- 3. Act on the gonads
LH is __________which acts on the ______ to promote the production of ______.
- Luteinizing hormone
- Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
FSH is __________ which acts on the ______ to stimulate the production of ______.
- Follicle stimulating hormones
- Sperm or ova
Why is the posterior lobe referred to as �neurosecretory�?
Neurohormones are produced by the neural cells in the hypothalamus and carried to the posterior lobe within the axon bundles of their cells, they are secreted in the terminal ends of the axons in the capillary plexus of the posterior lobe.
List the two hormones produced by the posterior lobe and state the basic function of each hormone.
- 1. Oxytocin (PVN) � influences smooth muscles of uterus and mammary glands
- 2. ADH (SON) (antidiuretic hormone) � water balance
The only hormone discussed in this course that have a positive feedback mechanism is?
- The presence of a stimulus causes the release of this hormone. In the absence of he stimulus, release of the hormone does not occur.
What is the stimulus for oxytocin?
- Stretching of uterus wall
What is the actions on the uterus from oxytocin?
Smooth muscles of uterus to contract � labor
What is the action of on the mammary gland from oxytocin?
Let down reflex � release milk
What is the advantage post-pregnancy to sucking causing the release of a hormone that makes the uterus contract?
- Helps return it back to its normal size
- Name a therapeutic agent that mimics oxytocin.
What two hormones aid the baby in receiving milk?
- Prolactin causes the milk production
- Oxytocin causes the milk that has been produced and stored to be released as the baby suckles
What are two general functions of ADH?
- 1. In water retention and therefore blood osmolarity and blood volume regulation
- 2. Constriction of smooth muscles in arteries effects blood pressure
What are the ramifications of the kidney reabsorbing more water?
- 1. Increased blood volume
- 2. Decreased urine output
- 3. Decreased concentration of solutes in blood\
What is vasoconstriction?
Small diameter blood vessels
How does vasoconstriction affect blood pressure?
Increases blood pressure
Describe how ADH release can aid in return to homeostasis in the case of low blood pressure or large volume blood loss.
- � Vasoconstriction = maintain BP
- � Conservation of water and maintenance of blood volume
Diabetes is characterized by a high glucose level in the blood. Not all diabetes is caused by insulin deficiency. Describe diabetes insipidis.
- 1. Diabetes insipidis is caused b an abnormally low ADH level
- 2. This causes a decrease in the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidney
- 3. This water reabsorption deficiency causes an increase of urinary output since more water remains in the kidney tubules
- 4. This water reabsorption efficiency causes an increase in blood volume, as the water that is reabsorbed is added to the blood vessels. This causes blood pressure to increase.
- 5. Classic symptoms include increased urinary output and increased thirst
Where is the thyroid gland located?
Anterior neck on the trachea just inferior to the larynx
What are the components of the thyroid gland.
Lateral lobes and isthmus (bridge par) parathyroid gland on back.
Histologically name the components of the thyroid gland.
Follicles, follicular cells � make thyroid hormone, parafollicular cells make calcatonin� inside is fill with colloid and store the thyroid hormone
Where are the thyroid hormones produced?
Where is the thyroid hormone stored?
Colloid material inside
What hormone is produced by the parafollicular cells?
Describe the function of calcitonin.
Polypeptide hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. Its effect is to lower blood calcium levels
T3 & T4 differ only by the number of iodine attached o the molecule. Give the full name of each hormone.
- T3: Triiodothyronine
- T4: thyroxin
T3 & T4 act on?
Most cells in the body
List the general function of the thyroid hormones.
- 1. Increase metabolic rate
- 2. Maintain blood pressure
- 3. Regulate tissue growth
Give the basic feedback mechanism for the regulation of how much thyroid hormone is produced.
- The stimulus is: low T4 or low metabolic rate.
- This stimulates the hypothalamus which triggers TRH, this acts on the anterior pituitary to produce TSH which makes the thyroid follicular cells to release more T3 and T4 then hey find target cells and the outcome is an increased metabolic rate.
Thyroid hormone cannot act alone. It needs a binding protein to be recognized by the target cell receptor.
- T3, and T4 converted into T3. The T3 acts on the receptor on the membrane.
- T4 & Plasma protein (TBG) act on the T4 receptor
List the factors that could be responsible for low thyroid function:
- 1. Follicular cells not producing enough thyroid hormone
- 2. Anterior pituitary is not producing the TSH that tells the thyroid gland that hormone has been made
- 3. The target cells not being able to recognize the thyroid hormone produced.
Discuss how each of the following factors listed above would be discovered b running several thyroid related functions rather then just a thyroid hormone level.
- � Assay of T7 = T3+T4 = indicated thyroid function
- � BG level � assays TBG level ( if low, less binging of T3, T4 occurs, therefore symptoms similar to low T3, T4 levels
- � TSG level � assay concentration of TSH in blood sream
Where is calcatonin produced?
What is osteoclasts?
It is a cell that reabsorbs or breaks down bone matrix � release calcium
What affect does calcitonin his on osteoclasts activity?
Inhibitory � decreases calcium in the blood
What is an osteoblast?
Bone forming cell hat uses calcium in the blood stream
What affect does calcitonin his on osteoblast activity?
Stimulate � decreases calcium in the blood
Discuss the correlation between the change in concentration of calcium in the blood and the concentration of calcitonin in the blood.
Decreased blood calcium in the bloodstream when calcatonin is present
Describe where the parathyroid gland is located
Embedded in the thyroid gland on the posterior side
List the two classes of cells found in the parathyroid gland and give the main function of each. (Histological)
- 1. Principle cells � produce PTH
- 2. Oxyphil cells � function unknown
List the functions of the parathyroid hormones.
- � Increased blood calcium levels
- � Stimulates osteoclasts activity to digest boney matrix and release phosphate and calcium into the blood
- � Increased reabsorption of calcium by the kidney tubules
- � Increased absorption of calcium by intestinal cells
What is the interaction of the parathyroid hormone and calcitonin?
Hypocalcaemia � PTH releases from parathyroid glands and activates osteoclasts, increases calcium absorption from food, promotes activation of VIT D and increased calcium reabsorbtion. Rising calcium in the blood is inhibits PTH release
BMR increased, weight loss,
You don�t produce enough thyroid hormone, decreased metabolic rate, weight gain
Significance of goiter presence
Lack of iodine
Person makes abnormal antibodies directed against thyroid follicles cells - they mimic TSG and continue to stimulate release of TH. Elevated metabolic rate, sweating, rapid heartbeat, nervousness, weight loss, exophthalmoses
Parathyroid hormone is released from
Describe the adrenal gland histologically.
- 1. Capsule
- 2. Zona glomerulosa
- 3. Zona fasciulata
- 4. Zona reticularis
- 5. Adrenal medulla
Hormone group released and example: Zona Glomerulosa
Mineralcorticoids � aldosterone
Hormone group released and example: Zona Fasciulata � parallel chords of cells
Glucocorticoids � cortisol
Hormone group released and example: Zona reticularis
Corticoids � gonadocarticoids � testosterone and small amounts of female sex hormone
Hormone group released and example: Medulla
Catecholamine � epinephrine
Aldeserone is secreted from the _______1__ __________ or the adrenal cortex. It will act on the ____2__tubules of the _____3____. There it will simulate the uptake of __4___ ions from the kidney and back into the blood (�reabsorbtion�), and, in order o keep osmotic pressure equalized, water will follow. Hence, when aldosterone is present, you will increase __5___ and ___6__ reabsorption, which will increase the blood volume, and hence blood pressure. Aldosterone presence helps regulate the concentration of __7__ in the blood with precise control, as the effect may only last about __8___sec.
- 1. Zona glomerulosa
- 2. Distal
- 3. Kidney
- 4. Na+
- 5. Na+
- 6. Water
- 7. Na+
- 8. 20
Because the amount of aldosterone released is so important in maintaining electrolyte balance and blood pressure, many factors will be taken into account to affect the amount released. List a few.
- 1. Renin-angiotensin mechanisim
- 2. Plasma ion concentration
- 3. ACTH
- 4. ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
Outline the Renin-Angiotensis system
- � Stimulus = low BP, low plasma osmolarit
- � This triggers juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney
- � This triggers the enzyme rennin
- � Angiotensis becomes angiotensin II by the rennin
- � The Zona Glomerulosa cells then release aldosterone, which goes to the kidney tubules
- � Outcome is Increased [Na+] absorbed into the blood, H2O follows and Increased BP and BV.
- � Once there is an increased BP ANP halts the renin and aldosterone production
Give an example of a glucocorticoid.
What is the main function of cortisol?
- � Maintain [glucose] between meals
- � Helps maintain BV
What is glucogenesis?
Transfer of fatty acids and triglycerides into glucose and glucose from stored fats
How does cortisol presence affect glucogenesis?
Increased cortisol will increase glucogensis
List the results of excess cortisol levels
- 1. Increased glocognsiss
- 2. Decreased cartilage and bone formation
- 3. Decreased inflammatory process
- 4. Depresses immune sstem
- 5. Promotes changes in cardiovascular, neural and gastrointestinal systems.
Outline the feedback mechanism that regulates the release of cortisol.
Hypothalamus produces CRH which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to produce ACTH which causes the adrenal cortex to produe cortisol.
From where a gonadocorticoids released?
Adrenal cortex and gonads
From which is most of the gonadocorticoid hormones released?
What hormone is secreted from the adrenal medulla?
Catacholamines � E (epinephrine)and NE(norepinephrine)
Describe the location of the pancreas?
Deep to the stomach, horizontal cavity on the back wall
The pancreas has both ____ and ____ functions
Exocrine and endocrine
Exo referrers to?
Where do products of the exocrine glands get ducted to?
Lumen of small intestine
Where are the hormones secreted by the endocrine glands secreted to?
The pockets of light staining endocrine cells found within the pancreas are referred to as the ?
Islets of langerhans � produce pancreatic hormones
What do acinar cells do?
Secrete digestive enzymes into a duct to aid in digestion
List the two types of cells found in the endocrine portion of the pancreas and state which hormone is secreted by each.
- Alpha- glucagon
- Beta � insulin
Write the relationship between stored glucose and usable glucose and the hormones that aid in the storage process.
- Glycogen ----glucagon? glucose
- Glucose ---insulin? glycogen
Glucagon causes glycogen to be converted to
Glucagon causes lactic acid and fatty acids to be congested to
Glucagon causes sorted glucose in the liver to
Glucagon presents causes blood glucose concentrations to
Insulin presence increases the transport of glucose thought the cell _____ of muscle cells
Insulin inhibits the ability of glucose to be converted to
Insulin inhibits the ability of _____ ____ and _____ to be converted to glucose
Insulin will cause blood glucose levels to
Diabetes mellitus involves decreased action of insulin caused by either a _____ in secretion or a _____ in activity.
Pancreatic decreased activity would cause a _____ in secretion of insulin. Decreased ability of insulin receptors to recognize insulin molecules that are present will _______ the ability of he muscle cells to move glucose into the cells and therefore _______ blood glucose levels.
Diabetes mellitus will cause a _____ in the ability to lower blood glucose by moving glucose into cells. _______ the concentration of glucose in the blood. _______ acetone in the blood.
What lab tests indicated diabetes mellitus? ______ in blood glucose concentration. _____ in blood acetone possible. Possible presence of ____ and/or ______ in urine.
Describe the oldest historically documented test for the disorder.
Taste the urine � if its tastes sweet, they have it.
There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type II. IDDM is type ____ diabetes. IDDM stands for?
- Type I
- Insulin dependant diabetes mellitus
List the characteristics of IDDM
- � Juvenile onset
- � Beta cells of pancreas quit working
- � Insulin is no longer secreted
- � Thought to be caused by an autoimmune disease
NIDDM is type ____ diabetes. NIDDM stands for.
- Type II
- Non insulin dependant diabetes mellitus
List the characteristics of NIDDM
- � Mature onset t
- � Insulin receptors no longer work as well
- � Increased blood glucose
- � Genetically and overweight are main causes
Explain the current theory regarding how excess adipose cells may play a factor in developing NIDDM.
Overproduction of tumor necrosis factor which destroys insulin receptors so they don�t work as well
Where is increased glucose found in for: Insipidus
Where is increased glucose found in for: Mellitus I and Mellitus II
Blood and urine
What is the cause of diabetes: insipidus
What is the cause of diabetes: Mellitus I
Lack of insulin
What is the cause of diabetes: Mellitus II
Decreased insulin production due to damaged or efficient receptors
Ketosis/acidosis: Mellitus I and II
Urine output: Insipidus
Urine output: Mellitus II and I
- Where is the thymus located?
- Deep to the sternum in the thorax
Gonads produce what hormone and what is the function.
Esterogen and testosterone - regulation of reproductive functions
Thymus produces what hormone and what is the function?
Thymosin � involved in immune system
Pineal gland produces what hormone and what is the function?
Melatonin � believed to be involved in the sleep/wake cycle
Cardiac tissue produces what hormone and what is the function?
- ANP � stops aldesterone and renin
- What does ANP stand for?
- Atrial natriuretic peptide
Discuss the function and origin of erythropoietin
Kidney � stimulates production of RBCs
- Describe the origin and the significance of ANP.
- Atrial natriuretic peptide
- Prompts the kidneys to increase their production of salty urine and inhibits aldosterone release by the adrenal cortex. Also ANP increases the amount of sodium in the extracullular fluid, increasing BP and BV
GI tract has what type of cells, what do they produce and what is the function.
Enteroendocrine cells. Polypeptides � regulates motility and secretion within the GI tract
Kidney tissue produces what hormone and what is the function?
Erythropoietin � signal bone marrow to produce RBCs
Discuss the endocrine general function in regulation of the digestive tract.
Regulates motility and secretion within the GI tract
Placenta produce what hormones and what is the function?
Various hormones of regulation � regulates pregnancy
Describe the involvement of the endocrine system in the return of homeostasis.
- �The body always tries to maintain homeostasis
- �Many mechanisms are involved in attempts to return to homeostasis when various (stressors) occur
- �General Adaptation syndrome � extreme stress may cause this chain of reactions