Ch 24 ML
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The ___, which is the size and shape of a chestnut, encircles the first part of the urethra just inferior to the bladder.
The prostate consists of 20-30 compound tubuloalveolar glands of three classes:
- Mucosal glands
The prostate glands are embedded in a mass of dense connective tissue and smooth muscle called the ____ ____ and surrounded by a connective tissue capsule.
The muscle of the stroma contracts during ____ to squeeze the prostatic secretion into the urethra.
The prostatic secretion constitutes about __ of the volume of semen.
One of the enzymes that liquefy semen is ___-___ ___; measuring levels of this enzyme in a man's blood is the most important mehtod of screening for prostate cancer.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
The monthly ___ ___ is the menstrual cycle as it relates to the ovary.
The ovarian cycle has three successive phases:
- The follicular phase
- Luteal Phase
From before birth to the end of a female's reproductive years, the ovarian cortex ontains many thousands of follicles, most of which are _____ _____.
Each of these primordial follicles, from which all subsequent follicle states arise, cosists of an oocytte surrounded by a single layer of flat supportive cells called ____ ____.
At the start of each ovarian cycle, 6-12 primordial follicles start to grow, initiating the ____ ____, which lasts 2 weeks.
Follicular phase. (follicles 1-6 in Figure 24.13a)
Beyond the smallest stages, growth is stimulated by ___-____ ____ secreted from the anterior part of the pituitary gland.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
When a primordial follicle starts to grow, its flat follicular cells become cuboidal, and the oocyte grows larger. Now the folilcle is called a ____ ____.
The follicular cells multiply to form a stratified epithelium around the oocyte; from this point on, the follicular cells are called ____ ____.
In the next stage (follicle 4 in Figure 24.13a) the oocyte develops a glyco-protein coat called the ____ ____, a protective shell that a sperm must ultimately penetrate to fertilize the oocyte.
Zona pellucida, ("transparent belt")
As the granulosa cells continue to divide, a layer of connetive tissue called the ___ ____ condenses around the exterior of the primary follicle.
The theca cells are stimulated by ____ ____(from the anterior pitiutary) to secrete ____.
Luteinizing hormone, androgens (male sex hormones).
The nearby granulosa cells, under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone, convert the androgens into the female sex hormones, _____.
Once secreted into the bloodstream, the estrogens stimulate the growth and activity of all female sex organs. These estrogens also signal the ____ ___ to repair itself after each menstrual period.
In the next stage of follicle development (follicle 5), a clear liquid gathers between the granulosa cells and coalesces to form a fluid-filled cavity called the ____; the follicle is now a ____ ____.
Antrum ("cave"), secondary (antral) follicle.
Finally, one follicle attains full size (follicle 6 in Figure 24.13a), reaching a diameter of _ cm. This mature follicle, the ____ ____, is ready to be ovulated.
2 cm (almost 1 inch), vesicular (Graafian) follicle.
Of the many follicles that grow in the follicular phase, most die and degenerate along the way, so that only one follicle each month completes the maturation process and expels its oocyte from an ovary for potential ferilization. Such explusion, called ____, occurs just after the follicular phase ends, on about day _ of the ovarian cyle.
Ovulation occurs about ___ through each ovarian cyle.
The signal for ovulation is the sudden release of a large quantity of ___ ___ from the pituitary gland, just before day 14.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH).
The corpus luteum is not a degenerative structure but an endocrine gland that persists throught he second half, or ___ ___, of each ovarian cycle. It secretes estrogens and another hormone called ____, which acts on the mucosa of the uterus, signaling it to prepare for implantation of an embryo.
Luteal phase, progesterone.
If there is no implantation of an embryo, the corpus luteium dies after 2 weeks and becomes a scar called a ___ ___.
Corpus albicans ("white body")
____ ____, which affect approximately 1 of every 50,000 males, most often between the ages 15 and 35, arise most commonly from the rapidly dividing, early-stage spermatogenic cells.
For unknown reasons, testicular cancer is becoming increasingly common (its incidence in the US increased by _% between 1974 and 1990)
___ ___ is a slow-growing cancer that arises from the main glands in the organ. Although usually symptomless in the early stages, eventually the cancer can grow sufficiently to impinge on the urethra, and the flow of urine may be blocked.
___ ___ is the second most common cause of cancer death in men (after lung cancer), killing _% of all men in the US.
Prostate cancer, 3%
Prostate risk factors include:
- A fatty diet
- genetic predisposition
___-___ ___ is the most effective means of measuring blood levels of prostate cancer, while other ways are only detected at later stages of the disease.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
If mestasis occurs, are there any effective control measures available?
___ ___ typically arises from cells in the germinal epithelium covering the ovary. It affects _% of women and is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women.
Ovarian cancer, 1.4%.
Women with the highest risk of ovarian cancer are those that:
have the most ovulations over their lifetime (that is, women who have neither had children nor used oral contraceptives.)
Because early detetion of ovarian cancer is difficult and the prognosis is poor if metastasis has occured, the overall 5-year survival rate is under _%.
___ ___, which arises from the endometrium of the uterus (usually from the uterine glands), is the fourth most common cancer of women (after lung, breast, and colorectal cancer); about _% develop it.
Endometrial cancer, 2%.
The most important sign of endometrial cancer is:
Bleeding from the vagina.
Endometrial cancer has a relatively __ cure rate of _% to _%.
High, 40% to 95%.
___ ___, which usually appears between the ages of 30 and 50 occurs in about _% of US women, is a slow-growing cancer that arises from the epithelium.
Cervical Cancer, 1%.
__% cases of cervical cancer are caused by sexually transmitted human papillomavirus.
In a ____ ____, which is the most effective way to detect this cancer in its earliest (precancerous) stage, some cervical epethilial cells are scraped off and examined microscopically for abnormalities.
Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, or cervical smear test.
Cervical cancer survial rates are very __ (over _%).
____ ____, the second most common cause of cancer deathis in women and the killer _% of US women.
Breast cancer, 3%.
Women are advised to perform monthly breast self-examinations to detect:
- Lumps in the breast
- A change in breast shape
- Scaling on the nipple or areola
- Discharge from the nipple
- Dimpling or an orange-peel texture on the breast
Risk factors for breast cancer include:
- A family history of the disease
- Late menopause
- Early onset of puberty
- First live birth after age 30
- Postmenopausal estogen-replacement therapy
Breast cancer is a rapidly spreading cancer that metastasizes from the breast through lymphatic vessels to axillary and parasternal lymph nodes, and then to the __ __, ___, ___, ___, and ___. If metastases reach the lungs or liver, average survival rate time is less than __ months.
Chest wall, lungs, liver, brains, and bones, 6 months.
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