Phylogeny + Germ layers

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annzors
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87269
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Phylogeny + Germ layers
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2011-05-22 22:43:39
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  1. Name the 3 subphylums of the Phylum Chordata.
    • Urochordata
    • Cephalochordata
    • Vertebrata
  2. The hagfish belongs to what class?
    What are its characteristics?
    • Myxinoidea
    • jawless
    • scaleless
    • cartilanginous skeleton
    • lack vertebrae
    • has mucous glands
  3. Protochordates are an informal category, of what?
    What groups does it compose of? (3)
    • = invertebrate that are close to vertebrates
    • Phylum Hemichordata
    • Subphylum Urochordata
    • Subphylum Cephalochordata
  4. Hermichordata consist of?
    What are its characteristics?
    • marine worms
    • endostyle
    • pharyngeal slits
    • dorsal nerve cord
  5. What are the 5 characteristics of Chordates?
    • notochord
    • pharyngeal slits
    • dorsal nerve cord
    • endostyle
    • postanal tail
  6. Sumphylum Urochodata consists of?
    Tunicates, who loses its chordate characteristics as an adult
  7. Subphylum Cephalochordata consist of?
    sand lance, Branchiostoma
  8. Lampreys belong to what class?
    Petromyzontida
  9. Class Chondrichthyes consists of ?
    What kind of tail do they have?
    What kind of scales?
    • sharks, rays, ratfish
    • heterocercal
    • placoid scales
  10. Class Osteichthyes consists of what 2 groups?
    What are each of their characteristics?
    What kind of tail?
    What kind of scales?
    • Actinopterygii = ray finned
    • Sarcopterygii = fleshy fin, lung
    • homocercal tail, both bony fishes
    • cosmine, cycloid, ctenoid scales
  11. Class Amphibia, 3 subclasses? Characteristics?
    • Urodela (salamaders and newts)
    • Anura (frogs and toads)
    • Gymnophiona (caecilians or apodans)
    • Loss of scale, reduced bones, small
  12. Class Reptilia
    Characteristics?
    Skull?
    • first amniotes
    • 1) Parareptilia = turles
    • 2) Eureptilia
    • i) Lepidosauria (2 Orders) = Sphenodonta (tuatara) + Squamata (lizrds, snakes)
    • ii) Archosauria = Crocodilia + Dinosaurs&Aves
    • anapsid and diapsid (snakes, lizards, crocs)
  13. Class Aves
    Skull?
    Characteristics?
    • diapsid skull
    • warm blooded
    • feathers, hollow bones
  14. Class Mammalia
    Skull?
    Orders? (3)
    • Synapsid
    • Monotremata (platupus, anteaters)
    • Metatheria (marsupials) (yolk)
    • Eutheria (chorioallantoic placenta)
    • (Theria = live birth)
  15. Deuterostome development characteristics?
    • radial cleavage
    • form coelom by entercoely
    • bastopore = anus
    • indeterminate cleavage
    • skeleton from inner mesoderm
  16. Protostome development characteristics?
    • spiral cleavage
    • corm coelom by schizocoely
    • blastopore= mouth
    • determinate cleavage
    • skeleton from outer ectoderm
    • eg starfish
  17. Amount of yoke type? (3)
    "LECITHAL"
    • Microlecithal (eg urchin ; enterocoely)
    • Mesolecithal (eg frog ; schizocoely)
    • Macrolecithal (eg chick)
  18. Stages of embryo?
    Blastulation (3)
    Gastrulation
    Neurulation
    Organogenesis
    • Zygote
    • Morula "pillberry"
    • Bastula (has hollow cavity = blastocoel)
  19. Ectoderm (gastrula): name 3 nerula.
    What are the organs?
    • epidermal ectoderm
    • neural plate
    • neural crest ectoderm
    • forms: epidermis, mouth, thalamus, brain, spinal cord
  20. Endoderm (gastrula)
    Organs formed?
    • esophagus
    • tracheal tube
    • stomach
    • liver
    • pancreas
    • urinary bladder
    • intestines
  21. Mesoderm (gastrula)
    Name 4 types of mesoderm AND they subgroups.
    List the organs formed.
    • 1) notochord
    • 2) epimere
    • - dermatostome = dermis, dermal bone
    • - myotomes = axial muscles
    • - schelotome = vertebral column
    • 3) Mesomere - kidney, and urinary ducts
    • 4) hypomere
    • - somatic = limbs, gonads
    • - splanchnic = heart, vessels

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