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a povertythat the growing prosperity of thepostwar era seemed to affect hardlyat all
"Hard Core" Poverty
Places where racial/ethnic minorities swelled American cities
provide blacks with separate facilitiesas long as the facilities are equal tothose of whites
"Seperate But Equal" Doctrine
Earl Warrenexplained that “separate but equal”was unequal
“separate but equal…is inherently unequal”
Justice Earl Warren
desegregate the schools on its owntime; left specific decisions to lowercourt
"With all deliberate speed"
school desegregation did not come relatively quickly and quietly. Instead this happened
worked to obstruct desegregation
White Citizens Council
school officials to p lace students in schools according to their scholastic abilities/social behavior
Pupil Placement Laws
parents withdrew their children from public schools and enrolled them in all-white schools
A group of African American students who were enrolled into Little Rock High School which previously was an all white school
The Little Rock Nine
Protest and opposition methods used by those in the civil rights movement.
Nonviolence and the “high moral ground”
professed refusal to obey certain laws issued by the government
Author of the book, The Other America
This book chronicled continuing existence of poverty in America.
The Other America
the effort to tear down buildings in the poorest and more degraded areas and build new ones
an NAACP lawyer , dean of Howard University he took part in almost all segregation cases seen before the Supreame Court
An NAACP lawyer who latter became a supreame court justice. Won Brown V. Board Of Education
NAACP lawyer and professor at Howard University, was a teacher of Thurgood Marshall. First Black Govenor of The Virgin Islands Territory.
Taught at Howard University and aided the NAACP in their efforts
a chief justice; explained the unanimous opinion of his colleagues; “separate educational facilities are apparently unequal”
black woman to refused to give up her seat to a white passenger
after the arrest of Rosa Parks, local leaders organized a successful boycott to end segregated seating
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-1956
played for Brooklyn dodgers; the first African American to play Major League Baseball
This act ensured that all African Americans had the right to vote
The Civil Rights Act of 1957
This act enforced the right for all to vote by allowing courts to hear cases where people had been denied voiting as well as the investigation of polls to ensure all had the same rights
Civil Rights Act of 1960
that economic growth would eventually lead everyone into prosperity
"A rising tide lifts all boats"
the apparent hopelessness that made it more difficult for individuals to advance
"Culture Of Poverty"
This decision overturned Plessy V. Furgason stating that segrigation based off of race was a violation of the 14th amendment
Brown V. Board Of Education
ruled that communities could provide blacks with separate facilities as long as they were equal to those of the whites
Plessy V. Furgueson
A supreame court decision saying that segregation of schools even partially is wrong. Was one of the first cases of segregation being fought in the "north"
Keyes vs. School District no. 1 Denver, CO 1973
more than a 100 southern members of Congress signed a manifesto denouncing Brown decision and urging to defy it.
Southern Declaration On Dependence (Southern Manifesto)
Supreme Court refused to declare “pupil placement laws” unconstitutional
Shuttlesworth V. Burmingham Board Of Education
the desegregation caused an angry white mob to prevent implementation of the order
Crisis At Central High, Little Rock AK
This term refers to the american civil rights movement
"The Second Reconstruction"
This decision ended the segregation of the buses
Gayle vs. Browder
A civil rights orginization most noted for it's first president, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
was issued after the “separate but equal” doctrine was overturned; desegregate schools
a group of talented lawyers, black opponents of segregation
Underdeveloped countries that were not affliated with an economic stratagy such as communism or capitalism
Third World Countries
would use nuclear weapons in response to communist threats by Dulles
Massive Retalliation (M.A.D)
part of French colonial empire in Southeast Asia; led by Bao Dai.
pushing the Soviet Union to the brink of war in order to exact concessions
highways were built for military convenience
Federal Highway Act
Pacts made between countries to protect eachother if another alliance attacks ones of them (in technicallity, NATO was one of these)
Mutual Defense pacts
basically the same thing. Left wing said it is national health insurance but right wing said it is socialized
National Heath Insurance V. "Socialized" Medicine.
JFK was a Catholic and people feared that he would be a puppet of the pope but he addressed that he wouldn’t be.
The Catholic Question
Johnson's economic policies
"War on Poverty"
theories about who
tried to kill JFK. ‘grassy knole’ and a guy (Zegruder) happened
to be at the place and happened to be taking pictures and took
pictures of the shooting.
about the Kennedy family
Presidential Power, Richard Neustadt
Ran for president at some point, was vice president, had a horrible reputaion and career. Said, "I am not a crook"
The description of the Kennedy family, they were thought of like royalty and almost worshiped by some
This person ran for president twice. The first time he lost to Kennedy, second time he won against Goldwater
Lyndon B. Johnson
Group of people started this to confront segregation frontwardly
trying to keep his promise of segregation, stood in the doorway of
the University of Alabama to keep 2 black students from entering
"Stand in the schoolhouse door."
A quote by Dr. King
"I have a dream"
campaign launched in
June 1964 to attempt to register
as many black
voters as possible in Mississippi
which had historically excluded most blacks from voting.
Segregation by law
De Jure Segregation
Segregation by practice, apart of life
De Facto Segregation
An action or policy
favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination
Political slogan representing the civil rights movement
origins” and set up number of immigrations. No set numbers for each
country. No longer discriminated against certain races.
Immigration Reform Act
between JFK and
Nixon. Nixon was all sweating and everything and he lost majority of
TV and Presidential Debates
ran against Lyndon
B. Johnson. Former Senator of Arizona.
during McCarthy’s time, it got its roots and propel for 8 years of
republican house and congress
JFK vs. LBJ
A very close
election but John F. Kennedy won in the end.
Election of 1960
This person is believed to have killed JFK but was killed before he could really be questioned
Lee Harvey Oswald
This person killed the person believed to have killed JFK
Limited the number of people that could immigrate per year from each country
National Origins System
of Alabama. He tried to block 2 black students from entering the
University of Alabama as a promise to keep segregation.
First black student
at the University of Mississippi. His sole purpose was to pressure
the Kennedy administration to do something about the discrimination
student leader of
racist leader of
police in Alabama. Because of his violent ways of dealing with the
blacks, he became the symbol of bigotry.
Eugene "Bull" Connor
leader from Mississippi
involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University
Killed by a KKK dude.
civil rights leader.
She was most known for organizing the Freedom Summer.
Fannie Lou Hammer
general, JFK’s advisor and his younger brother. A civil rights
Robert "Bobby" Kennedy
of the civil rights movement
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
named for Earl
Warren. Head of commission to investigate the assassination of John
F. Kennedy. They said it was a rush and not well researched.
Warren Commission and Report
LBJ’s health care
program expanded upon “New Frontier”
how LBJ called the
health insurance thing.
"Hand up, not a handout"
Instead of tackling the civil rights movement, he talked about
freedom all over the world.
John F. Kennedy
Extremism in the
defense of liberty is no vice.... Moderation in the pursuit
is no virtue."
Landside win in an election for Nixon
Election of 1964.
series of nonviolent
protests which led to the Woolworth's
department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation.
term “black power.”
One of the
founders of SNCC.
was an American
political and urban activist who founded the Black
Huey P. Newton
became a member of
Nation of Islam. He was an African-American
American religious leader. He was the mentor to Malcolm X.
activist, who along with Huey
co-founded the Black
was one of the
principal organizations of the American
Civil Rights Movement
in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
sent people on
Freedom Rides to frontally confront the racial segregation.
Congress on Racial Equality (CORE)
where James Meredith
became the first black student to attend
University of Mississippi
organized by the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) to bring attention to the unequal treatment that black
endured in Birmingham.
during the meeting
with MLK, Abernathy and Shuttlesworth, the church was bombed killing
4 black girls
Burmingham Church Bombing
where the infamous
“stand in the schoolhouse door” happened
University of Alabama
in support of civil and economic rights for African
This is where MLK delivered his “I have a dream” speech
March On Washington
outlawed major forms
of discrimination against blacks and women, including racial
Civil Rights Act of 1964
was an American
created in the Mississippi,
organized by black
Mississippians, with assistance from the SNCC to challenge the
legitimacy of the white-only US
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
famous site of the
conflict of Bloody
on March 7, 1965, when armed officers attacked peaceful civil rights
demonstrators attempting to march to the state capital of Montgomery.
Selma Edmund Pettus Bridge
guarantees that no
person can be denied the right to vote due to an inability to pay a
tax prior to voting. The "poll tax" is now considered
allowed blacks to
Civil Rights Act of 1965 (Voting Rights Act)
led by MLK. Large
rally, marches, and demands to the City of Chicago for housing,
education, transportation, jobs, etc
residential, cultural, and business center in New York defined by the
outbreak of violent
civil disorder in which race
is a key factor
started when a black
guy was arrested for drunk driving. For some reason the mob grew by
hundreds and it turned into the deadliest race riot in the history of
LA. Most properties destroyed.
Watts Race Riot
467 injured, over 7,200 arrests, and more than 2,000 buildings
destroyed. Most people killed.
Detroit Race Riot
established by LBJ to investigate the causes of the 1967
and to provide recommendations for the future.
Commission On Civil Disorders
organization that favored and promoted equal rights and social
Black Panther Party
religious movement founded Detroit. It was to improve the spiritual,
mental, social, and economic condition of the blacks in America.
Nation of Islam
JFK’s program that
sent students to 3rd
“...we shall pay
any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend,
oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”
Kennedy's First Inagural Address and his foreign policy outline
conflicts fought by
oppressed nationalities against imperial
to establish separate sovereign
for the subjugated nationality
"Wars of National Liberation"
political leader and socialist
the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War
special operations force used in Vietnam for unconventional war
methods due to the fact that the troops couldn't tell friend from
Special Forces (Green Berets)
invasion of southern Cuba, with support from the US government, in an
attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Castro.
Bay Of Pigs
initiated by U.S.
JFK in 1961 aimed to establish economic cooperation between the U.S.
and South America.
Alliance For Progress
primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid
Agency for International Development (AID) Corps
meeting by JFK with Khrushchev. Kennedy had refused to allow Soviet
pressure to force his hand, or to influence the American policy of
primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid
constructed by East
starting that completely cut off West
from surrounding East Germany and from East
between US, Russia and Cuba during the Cold War. The closest the
world every got to a nuclear war.
explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes.
Test Ban Treaty
a nominal sovereign
who is, in reality, controlled by a foreign power. Vietnam was under
total number of people killed in a particular event and belligerent
side attempts to win a war by wearing down its enemy to the point of
collapse. These 2 were used because US didn’t want to kill Viets,
just stop the war.
"Body Count" And war of attrition
didn’t fight in the Viet war just to fight, but also intended to
win the popular support of the Viet people.
"Winnignt the Hearts and Minds"
informal lecture and discussion or series of lectures on a subject of
leader who was president of North Vietnam. He formed the Democratic
Republic of Vietnam
and led the Viet Minh revolutionary movement.
Ho Chi Mihn
States Secretary of State
from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John
Basically, they tried too hard to keep from being Soviet Russia's bitch
Escalation and The Containment Doctrine
improved U.S. fortunes, repeating almost word- for-word a
prognostication made by French General Henri Navarre in May of 1953.
"the light at the end of the tunnel"
tried to move the Vietnamese to a different/safer place but didn’t
work because the Vietnamese culture is tied with the resting places
of their ancestors.
This modeled the nations relationship between the investment in defence as well as civilian goods. It can be seen as an analogy for choices between defence and civilian spending in more complex economies.
"Guns and Butter"
the 13th and last ruler of the Nguyễn
From 1926 to 1945, he served as king (or emperor) of Annam
under French 'protection' (puppet regime.) Renamed his country
serving under Presidents
JFK and LBJ. he played a large role in escalating the United States
involvement in the Vietnam
the president to “take all necessary measures” to win the war in
"Take all necessary measures"
the "support" side of the military and the war. For
example, a military unit might send in it's medic's to administer
medicine for a village; or an engineer unit might repair a dirt road
for a nearby town
troops destroyed the village so that there would be no prisoners,
hence saving them.
"Necessary to destory (the village) in order to save it"
was the first
President of South
Diệm led the effort to create the Republic
and very anti-communist. Catholic. He lived out of the country in
France majority of the time.
Ngo Dinh Diem
States National Security Advisor
to Presidents JFK and LBJ. He escalated the involvement of the United
States in Vietnam
during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.
He established an authoritarian
rule over South Vietnam until he resigned and left the nation a few
days before the fall
and the ultimate communist victory.
Nguyen Van Thieu
Dai’s national army supported by France against Ho Chi Minh’s
First Indochina War
a conference with two tasks. The first was to try to find a way to
unify Korea. The second task was to discuss the possibility of
restoring peace in Indochina.
as a conflict between the United States-backed South Vietnamese
government and its opponents, both the South Vietnamese-based
(Viet Cong) and the North
Second Indochina War
which the Congress passed in response to a sea
between the North Vietnam and US. It is historical because it gave
LBJ authorization, without a formal declaration
by Congress, for the use of conventional
military force in Southeast
Gulf Of Tonkin Resolution
with demonstrations in 1964 and grew in strength in later years. The
US became polarized between those who advocated for continued
involvement in Vietnam and those who wanted peace
who commanded US
in the Vietnam
at its peak during the Tet
He adopted a strategy of attrition
against the Viet army.
General William Westmoreland
fought against segregation
in the U.S.
which gained him some notoriety. He was also the youngest General
General James Gavin
South Viet who went North but went back South to infiltrate South.
initially formed to seek independence
from the French
and led by Ho Chi Mihn.
demilitarized zones splitting Vietnam into South and North Vietnam
with 2 different political groups.
17th parallel partition
of political and religious tension in South
from May 1963 to November 1963. It was characterized by a series of
repressive acts by the South Vietnamese government, and a campaign of
which was mainly led by Buddhist
logistical system that ran from the N. Viet to the S. Viet through
the neighboring kingdoms of Laos
The system provided support, in the form of manpower and materiel,
to the armies.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
US Senator from
Arizona. later became known for his opposition to American
involvement in the Vietnam
J William Fullbright
he took office
committed to rethinking Johnson's Vietnam policies. He had argued
against escalation in 1965 in private counsel with the president. He
also served 4 presidents as their lawyers.
confrontation of the FI war. The battle occurred between March and
May 1954 and culminated in a comprehensive French defeat that
influenced negotiations over the future of Indochina at Geneva.
Dien Bien Phu
organization and army in South
that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments during
National Liberation Front (Viet Cong)
Discontent with the
Diệm regime had been simmering below the surface, and exploded with
against long-standing religious discrimination after the government
of protesters who defied a ban on the flying of the Buddhist
Diem was a catholic.
code name for one of
used by the U.S.
as part of its herbicidal
program. This chemical would take all the leaves off all the trees.
won all the battles in the war, but Vietnam won the hearts of the
Viet people, winning in the end.
"Win the battle, loose the war"
police tried to ease the riot with brutal methods and The entire
event took place live under the T.V. lights for seventeen minutes
with the crowd shouting
"The whole world is watching"
promised to get US out of Vietnam honorably. They would negotiate
rather than running away.
"Peace with Honor"
under President Lyndon
as the 38th
President of the United States.
Ran in the election of 1968.
Hurbert H. Humphrey
played a major role in the history
of the Democratic Party,
especially with his support of John
and of Hubert
Boss of Chicago.
said that he was support by the “silent” majority.
This person killed Dr. King
defendants charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot,
and other charges related to protests that took place in Chicago,
on the occasion of the 1968
Democratic National Convention.
Hoffman and Rubin were some of them.
known for the riots at the 1968 Democratic Convention
Youth International Party (Yippies)
over of the war to the Vietnamese
of US troops from Vietnam over a period of time
independence party. George Wallace ran on this ticket.
politician, a one-term congressman.
His work on civil
and the antiwar
movement has been cited as an inspiration by public figures
and social activist who co-founded the Yippies. Symbol of youth
offensive on Vietnam, it was very important because it was on the
Viet new year.
Tet Offensive Jan 1968
McCarthy in the presidential primary but then he was shot by Sirhan
OMG They killed Bobby!!! June 6th 1968
Election of 1968
unarmed citizens killed by US Army. US killed them because they
couldn’t tell the difference between Viet Mihn and Viet Cong.
Raised the protests against the Viet War.
Mai Lai Massacre
a Marxists theory
that there has to be sub-class of people that do all the work.
Nixon said he was
supported by the silent majority that are horrified of what is
happening to their country.
"Silent Majority" and "Middle America"
ran for democratic
platform in the election of 1968 against LBJ. Anti-Vietnam war.
The guy who shot Bobby
was one of the
founding members of the Youth
or Yippies, along with Abbie Hoffman.
feared that Bobby Kennedy would run for President and when he does,
Johnson withdraws nomination March 31, 1968
had announced he would not seek a second term, the purpose of the
convention was to select a new nominee to run as the Democratic
Party’s candidate for the office
Democratic Convention 1968
party. He ran on this ticket.
American Independence Party
a Pentagon worker
stole and released all info about how the war was to gain US prestige
and not for the sake of the Vietnamese.
protests happened that led to 3 students getting killed by the