Brinkley Terms Chapter 30 and 31

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  1. a povertythat the growing prosperity of thepostwar era seemed to affect hardlyat all
    "Hard Core" Poverty
  2. Places where racial/ethnic minorities swelled American cities
  3. provide blacks with separate facilitiesas long as the facilities are equal tothose of whites
    "Seperate But Equal" Doctrine
  4. Earl Warrenexplained that “separate but equal”was unequal
    "Warren Court"
  5. “separate but equal…is inherently unequal”
    Justice Earl Warren
  6. desegregate the schools on its owntime; left specific decisions to lowercourt
    "With all deliberate speed"
  7. school desegregation did not come relatively quickly and quietly. Instead this happened
    "Massive Resistance"
  8. worked to obstruct desegregation
    White Citizens Council
  9. school officials to p lace students in schools according to their scholastic abilities/social behavior
    Pupil Placement Laws
  10. parents withdrew their children from public schools and enrolled them in all-white schools
    Segregation Academies
  11. A group of African American students who were enrolled into Little Rock High School which previously was an all white school
    The Little Rock Nine
  12. Protest and opposition methods used by those in the civil rights movement.
    Nonviolence and the “high moral ground”
  13. professed refusal to obey certain laws issued by the government
    Civil Disobedience
  14. Author of the book, The Other America
    Michael Harrington
  15. This book chronicled continuing existence of poverty in America.
    The Other America
  16. the effort to tear down buildings in the poorest and more degraded areas and build new ones
    "Urban Renual"
  17. an NAACP lawyer , dean of Howard University he took part in almost all segregation cases seen before the Supreame Court
    Charles Huston
  18. An NAACP lawyer who latter became a supreame court justice. Won Brown V. Board Of Education
    Thurgood Marshall
  19. NAACP lawyer and professor at Howard University, was a teacher of Thurgood Marshall. First Black Govenor of The Virgin Islands Territory.
    William Hastie
  20. Taught at Howard University and aided the NAACP in their efforts
    James Nabrit
  21. a chief justice; explained the unanimous opinion of his colleagues; “separate educational facilities are apparently unequal”
    Earl Warren
  22. black woman to refused to give up her seat to a white passenger
    Rosa Parks
  23. after the arrest of Rosa Parks, local leaders organized a successful boycott to end segregated seating
    Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-1956
  24. played for Brooklyn dodgers; the first African American to play Major League Baseball
    Jackie Robinson
  25. This act ensured that all African Americans had the right to vote
    The Civil Rights Act of 1957
  26. This act enforced the right for all to vote by allowing courts to hear cases where people had been denied voiting as well as the investigation of polls to ensure all had the same rights
    Civil Rights Act of 1960
  27. that economic growth would eventually lead everyone into prosperity
    "A rising tide lifts all boats"
  28. the apparent hopelessness that made it more difficult for individuals to advance
    "Culture Of Poverty"
  29. This decision overturned Plessy V. Furgason stating that segrigation based off of race was a violation of the 14th amendment
    Brown V. Board Of Education
  30. ruled that communities could provide blacks with separate facilities as long as they were equal to those of the whites
    Plessy V. Furgueson
  31. A supreame court decision saying that segregation of schools even partially is wrong. Was one of the first cases of segregation being fought in the "north" 
    Keyes vs. School District no. 1 Denver, CO 1973
  32. more than a 100 southern members of Congress signed a manifesto denouncing Brown decision and urging to defy it.
    Southern Declaration On Dependence (Southern Manifesto)
  33. Supreme Court refused to declare “pupil placement laws” unconstitutional
    Shuttlesworth V. Burmingham Board Of Education
  34. the desegregation caused an angry white mob to prevent implementation of the order
    Crisis At Central High, Little Rock AK
  35. This term refers to the american civil rights movement
    "The Second Reconstruction"
  36. This decision ended the segregation of the buses
    Gayle vs. Browder
  37. A civil rights orginization most noted for it's first president, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
    Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  38. was issued after the “separate but equal” doctrine was overturned; desegregate schools
    Brown II
  39. a group of talented lawyers, black opponents of segregation
  40. Underdeveloped countries that were not affliated with an economic stratagy such as communism or capitalism
    Third World Countries
  41. would use nuclear weapons in response to communist threats by Dulles
    Massive Retalliation (M.A.D)
  42. part of French colonial empire in Southeast Asia; led by Bao Dai.
    French Indochina
  43. pushing the Soviet Union to the brink of war in order to exact concessions
  44. highways were built for military convenience
    Federal Highway Act
  45. Pacts made between countries to protect eachother if another alliance attacks ones of them (in technicallity, NATO was one of these)
    Mutual Defense pacts
  46. basically the same thing. Left wing said it is national health insurance but right wing said it is socialized
    National Heath Insurance V. "Socialized" Medicine.
  47. JFK was a Catholic and people feared that he would be a puppet of the pope but he addressed that he wouldn’t be.
    The Catholic Question
  48. Johnson's economic policies
    "War on Poverty"
  49. theories about who
    tried to kill JFK. ‘grassy knole’ and a guy (Zegruder) happened
    to be at the place and happened to be taking pictures and took
    pictures of the shooting.
    Conspiracy theories
  50. book
    about the Kennedy family
    Presidential Power, Richard Neustadt
  51. Ran for president at some point, was vice president, had a horrible reputaion and career. Said, "I am not a crook"
    Richard Nixon
  52. The description of the Kennedy family, they were thought of like royalty and almost worshiped by some
  53. This person ran for president twice. The first time he lost to Kennedy, second time he won against Goldwater
    Lyndon B. Johnson
  54. Group of people started this to confront segregation frontwardly
    "Freedom Rides"
  55. George Wallace,
    trying to keep his promise of segregation, stood in the doorway of
    the University of Alabama to keep 2 black students from entering
    "Stand in the schoolhouse door."
  56. A quote by Dr. King
    "I have a dream"
  57. campaign launched in
    June 1964 to attempt to register
    as many black
    voters as possible in Mississippi
    which had historically excluded most blacks from voting.
    "Freedom Summer"
  58. Segregation by law
    De Jure Segregation
  59. Segregation by practice, apart of life
    De Facto Segregation
  60. An action or policy
    favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination
    Affirmative Action
  61. Political slogan representing the civil rights movement
    "Black Power"
  62. Eliminated “national
    origins” and set up number of immigrations. No set numbers for each
    country. No longer discriminated against certain races.
    Immigration Reform Act
  63. between JFK and
    Nixon. Nixon was all sweating and everything and he lost majority of
    his votes.
    TV and Presidential Debates
  64. ran against Lyndon
    B. Johnson. Former Senator of Arizona.
    Barry Goldwater
  65. Republican party,
    during McCarthy’s time, it got its roots and propel for 8 years of
    republican house and congress
    "Right Wing"
  66. JFK vs. LBJ

    A very close
    election but John F. Kennedy won in the end.
    Election of 1960
  67. Kennedy’s health
    care program
    "New Frontier"
  68. This person is believed to have killed JFK but was killed before he could really be questioned
    Lee Harvey Oswald
  69. This person killed the person believed to have killed JFK
    Jack Ruby
  70. Limited the number of people that could immigrate per year from each country
    National Origins System
  71. Governor
    of Alabama. He tried to block 2 black students from entering the
    University of Alabama as a promise to keep segregation.
    George Wallace
  72. First black student
    at the University of Mississippi. His sole purpose was to pressure
    the Kennedy administration to do something about the discrimination
    James Meredith
  73. student leader of
    the SNCC.
    Ella Baker
  74. racist leader of
    police in Alabama. Because of his violent ways of dealing with the
    blacks, he became the symbol of bigotry.
    Eugene "Bull" Connor
  75. civil
    leader from Mississippi
    involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University
    of Mississippi.
    Killed by a KKK dude.
    Medgar Evers
  76. civil rights leader.
    She was most known for organizing the Freedom Summer.
    Fannie Lou Hammer
  77. U.S attorney
    general, JFK’s advisor and his younger brother. A civil rights
    Robert "Bobby" Kennedy
  78. icon
    of the civil rights movement
    Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
  79. named for Earl
    Warren. Head of commission to investigate the assassination of John
    F. Kennedy. They said it was a rush and not well researched.
    Warren Commission and Report
  80. LBJ’s health care
    program expanded upon “New Frontier”

    "Great Society"
  81. how LBJ called the
    health insurance thing.
    "Hand up, not a handout"
  82. American president.
    Instead of tackling the civil rights movement, he talked about
    freedom all over the world.
    John F. Kennedy
  83. Extremism in the
    defense of liberty is no vice.... Moderation in the pursuit
    of justice
    is no virtue."
    Barry Goldwater
  84. Landside win in an election for Nixon
    Election of 1964.
  85. series of nonviolent
    protests which led to the Woolworth's
    department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation.
    Greensboro Sit-In
  86. popularized the
    term “black power.”
    One of the
    founders of SNCC.
    Stokely Carmichael
  87. was an American
    political and urban activist who founded the Black
    Huey P. Newton
  88. became a member of
    Nation of Islam. He was an African-American
    minister, public
    and human
    Malcolm X
  89. African
    American religious leader. He was the mentor to Malcolm X.
    Elijah Muhammed
  90. an
    activist, who along with Huey
    P. Newton,
    co-founded the Black
    Bobby Seale
  91. was one of the
    principal organizations of the American
    Civil Rights Movement
    in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by
    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
  92. sent people on
    Freedom Rides to frontally confront the racial segregation.
    Congress on Racial Equality (CORE)
  93. where James Meredith
    became the first black student to attend
    University of Mississippi
  94. strategic movement
    organized by the Southern
    Christian Leadership Conference
    (SCLC) to bring attention to the unequal treatment that black
    endured in Birmingham.
    Birmingham Marches
  95. during the meeting
    with MLK, Abernathy and Shuttlesworth, the church was bombed killing
    4 black girls
    Burmingham Church Bombing
  96. where the infamous
    “stand in the schoolhouse door” happened
    University of Alabama
  97. large political
    in support of civil and economic rights for African
    This is where MLK delivered his “I have a dream” speech
    March On Washington
  98. outlawed major forms
    of discrimination against blacks and women, including racial
    Civil Rights Act of 1964
  99. was an American
    created in the Mississippi,
    organized by black
    and white
    Mississippians, with assistance from the SNCC to challenge the
    legitimacy of the white-only US
    Democratic Party.
    Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
  100. famous site of the
    conflict of Bloody
    on March 7, 1965, when armed officers attacked peaceful civil rights
    demonstrators attempting to march to the state capital of Montgomery.
    Selma Edmund Pettus Bridge
  101. guarantees that no
    person can be denied the right to vote due to an inability to pay a
    tax prior to voting. The "poll tax" is now considered
    24th Amendment
  102. allowed blacks to
    Civil Rights Act of 1965 (Voting Rights Act)
  103. led by MLK. Large
    rally, marches, and demands to the City of Chicago for housing,
    education, transportation, jobs, etc
    Chicago Campaign
  104. major
    residential, cultural, and business center in New York defined by the
    boom-and-bust cycle.
  105. outbreak of violent
    civil disorder in which race
    is a key factor
    Race Riots
  106. started when a black
    guy was arrested for drunk driving. For some reason the mob grew by
    hundreds and it turned into the deadliest race riot in the history of
    LA. Most properties destroyed.
    Watts Race Riot
  107. forty-three dead,
    467 injured, over 7,200 arrests, and more than 2,000 buildings
    destroyed. Most people killed.
    Detroit Race Riot
  108. 11-member commission
    established by LBJ to investigate the causes of the 1967
    race riots
    and to provide recommendations for the future.
    Commission On Civil Disorders
  109. was an
    organization that favored and promoted equal rights and social
    Black Panther Party
  110. African-American
    religious movement founded Detroit. It was to improve the spiritual,
    mental, social, and economic condition of the blacks in America.
    Nation of Islam
  111. JFK’s program that
    sent students to 3rd
    world countries
    Peace Corps
  112. “...we shall pay
    any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend,
    oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”
    Kennedy's First Inagural Address and his foreign policy outline
  113. conflicts fought by
    oppressed nationalities against imperial
    to establish separate sovereign
    for the subjugated nationality
    "Wars of National Liberation"
  114. Cuban
    political leader and socialist
    Fidel Castro
  115. led
    the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War
    Nikita Khrushchev
  116. a
    special operations force used in Vietnam for unconventional war
    methods due to the fact that the troops couldn't tell friend from
    Special Forces (Green Berets)
  117. unsuccessful
    invasion of southern Cuba, with support from the US government, in an
    attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Castro.
    Bay Of Pigs
  118. charter
    initiated by U.S.
    JFK in 1961 aimed to establish economic cooperation between the U.S.
    and South America.
    Alliance For Progress
  119. agency
    primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid
    Agency for International Development (AID) Corps
  120. summit
    meeting by JFK with Khrushchev. Kennedy had refused to allow Soviet
    pressure to force his hand, or to influence the American policy of

    primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid
    Vienna Summit
  121. barrier
    constructed by East
    starting that completely cut off West
    from surrounding East Germany and from East
    Berlin Wall
  122. confrontation
    between US, Russia and Cuba during the Cold War. The closest the
    world every got to a nuclear war.
    Cuban Missile
  123. bans
    all nuclear
    explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes.
    Test Ban Treaty
  124. is
    a nominal sovereign
    who is, in reality, controlled by a foreign power. Vietnam was under
    France’s control.
    "Puppet Regime"
  125. the
    total number of people killed in a particular event and belligerent
    side attempts to win a war by wearing down its enemy to the point of
    collapse. These 2 were used because US didn’t want to kill Viets,
    just stop the war.
    "Body Count" And war of attrition
  126. US
    didn’t fight in the Viet war just to fight, but also intended to
    win the popular support of the Viet people.
    "Winnignt the Hearts and Minds"
  127. An
    informal lecture and discussion or series of lectures on a subject of
    public interest
  128. was
    a Marxist
    leader who was president of North Vietnam. He formed the Democratic
    Republic of Vietnam
    and led the Viet Minh revolutionary movement.
    Ho Chi Mihn
  129. United
    States Secretary of State
    from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John
    F. Kennedy
    and Lyndon
    B. Johnson.
    Dean Rusk
  130. Basically, they tried too hard to keep from being Soviet Russia's bitch
    Escalation and The Containment Doctrine
  131. to
    improved U.S. fortunes, repeating almost word- for-word a
    prognostication made by French General Henri Navarre in May of 1953.
    "the light at the end of the tunnel"
  132. US
    tried to move the Vietnamese to a different/safer place but didn’t
    work because the Vietnamese culture is tied with the resting places
    of their ancestors.
    Relocation Strategy
  133. This modeled the nations relationship between the investment in defence as well as civilian goods. It can be seen as an analogy for choices between defence and civilian spending in more complex economies.
    "Guns and Butter"
  134. was
    the 13th and last ruler of the Nguyễn
    From 1926 to 1945, he served as king (or emperor) of Annam
    under French 'protection' (puppet regime.) Renamed his country
    Bao Dai
  135. Secretary
    of Defense,
    serving under Presidents
    JFK and LBJ. he played a large role in escalating the United States
    involvement in the Vietnam
    Robert McNamara
  136. allowed
    the president to “take all necessary measures” to win the war in
    "Take all necessary measures"
  137. showing
    the "support" side of the military and the war. For
    example, a military unit might send in it's medic's to administer
    medicine for a village; or an engineer unit might repair a dirt road
    for a nearby town
    "Pacification" program
  138. US
    troops destroyed the village so that there would be no prisoners,
    hence saving them.
    "Necessary to destory (the village) in order to save it"
  139. was the first
    President of South
    Diệm led the effort to create the Republic
    of Vietnam
    and very anti-communist. Catholic. He lived out of the country in
    France majority of the time.
    Ngo Dinh Diem
  140. United
    States National Security Advisor
    to Presidents JFK and LBJ. He escalated the involvement of the United
    States in Vietnam
    during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.
    McGeorge Bundy
  141. President
    of South
    He established an authoritarian
    rule over South Vietnam until he resigned and left the nation a few
    days before the fall
    of Saigon
    and the ultimate communist victory.
    Nguyen Van Thieu
  142. father
    of containment.
    George Kennan
  143. Bao
    Dai’s national army supported by France against Ho Chi Minh’s
    First Indochina War
  144. was
    a conference with two tasks. The first was to try to find a way to
    unify Korea. The second task was to discuss the possibility of
    restoring peace in Indochina.
    Geneva Conference
  145. began
    as a conflict between the United States-backed South Vietnamese
    government and its opponents, both the South Vietnamese-based
    communist National
    Liberation Front
    (Viet Cong) and the North
    Vietnamese Army.
    Second Indochina War
  146. joint
    which the Congress passed in response to a sea
    between the North Vietnam and US. It is historical because it gave
    LBJ authorization, without a formal declaration
    of war
    by Congress, for the use of conventional
    military force in Southeast
    Gulf Of Tonkin Resolution
  147. began
    with demonstrations in 1964 and grew in strength in later years. The
    US became polarized between those who advocated for continued
    involvement in Vietnam and those who wanted peace
    Anti-war Movement
  148. General
    who commanded US
    military operations
    in the Vietnam
    at its peak during the Tet
    He adopted a strategy of attrition
    against the Viet army.
    General William Westmoreland
  149. Gavin
    fought against segregation
    in the U.S.
    which gained him some notoriety. He was also the youngest General
    during WWII.
    General James Gavin
  150. Communist.
    South Viet who went North but went back South to infiltrate South.
    initially formed to seek independence
    for Vietnam
    from the French
    and led by Ho Chi Mihn.
  151. Viet
    demilitarized zones splitting Vietnam into South and North Vietnam
    with 2 different political groups.
    17th parallel partition
  152. period
    of political and religious tension in South
    from May 1963 to November 1963. It was characterized by a series of
    repressive acts by the South Vietnamese government, and a campaign of
    which was mainly led by Buddhist
    Buddhist Crisis
  153. a
    logistical system that ran from the N. Viet to the S. Viet through
    the neighboring kingdoms of Laos
    and Cambodia.
    The system provided support, in the form of manpower and materiel,
    to the armies.
    Ho Chi Minh Trail
  154. US Senator from
    Arizona. later became known for his opposition to American
    involvement in the Vietnam
    J William Fullbright
  155. he took office
    committed to rethinking Johnson's Vietnam policies. He had argued
    against escalation in 1965 in private counsel with the president. He
    also served 4 presidents as their lawyers.
    Clark Clifford
  156. climactic
    confrontation of the FI war. The battle occurred between March and
    May 1954 and culminated in a comprehensive French defeat that
    influenced negotiations over the future of Indochina at Geneva.
    Dien Bien Phu
  157. political
    organization and army in South
    and Cambodia
    that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments during
    the Vietnam
    National Liberation Front (Viet Cong)
  158. Discontent with the
    Diệm regime had been simmering below the surface, and exploded with
    mass Buddhist
    against long-standing religious discrimination after the government
    of protesters who defied a ban on the flying of the Buddhist
    Diem was a catholic.
    Diem Assassination
  159. code name for one of
    the herbicides
    and defoliants
    used by the U.S.
    as part of its herbicidal
    program. This chemical would take all the leaves off all the trees.
    Agent Orange
  160. US
    won all the battles in the war, but Vietnam won the hearts of the
    Viet people, winning in the end.
    "Win the battle, loose the war"
  161. the
    police tried to ease the riot with brutal methods and The entire
    event took place live under the T.V. lights for seventeen minutes
    with the crowd shouting
    "The whole world is watching"
  162. Nixon
    promised to get US out of Vietnam honorably. They would negotiate
    rather than running away.
    "Peace with Honor"
  163. served
    under President Lyndon
    B. Johnson
    as the 38th
    President of the United States.
    Ran in the election of 1968.
    Hurbert H. Humphrey
  164. He
    played a major role in the history
    of the Democratic Party,
    especially with his support of John
    F. Kennedy
    in 1960
    and of Hubert
    in 1968.
    Boss of Chicago.
    Richard Daley
  165. he
    said that he was support by the “silent” majority.
    Richard Nixon
  166. This person killed Dr. King
    James Ray
  167. were seven
    defendants charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot,
    and other charges related to protests that took place in Chicago,
    on the occasion of the 1968
    Democratic National Convention.
    Hoffman and Rubin were some of them.
    "Chicago 7"
  168. most
    known for the riots at the 1968 Democratic Convention
    Youth International Party (Yippies)
  169. turning
    over of the war to the Vietnamese
  170. removal
    of US troops from Vietnam over a period of time
  171. American
    independence party. George Wallace ran on this ticket.
    Third Parties
  172. liberal
    politician, a one-term congressman.
    His work on civil
    and the antiwar
    movement has been cited as an inspiration by public figures
    Allard Lowenstein
  173. political
    and social activist who co-founded the Yippies. Symbol of youth
    Abbie Hoffman
  174. an
    offensive on Vietnam, it was very important because it was on the
    Viet new year.
    Tet Offensive Jan 1968
  175. defeated
    McCarthy in the presidential primary but then he was shot by Sirhan
    OMG They killed Bobby!!! June 6th 1968
  176. Richard
    Nixon won.
    Election of 1968
  177. Nixon’s
    Henry Kissinger
  178. 300-500
    unarmed citizens killed by US Army. US killed them because they
    couldn’t tell the difference between Viet Mihn and Viet Cong.
    Raised the protests against the Viet War.
    Mai Lai Massacre
  179. a Marxists theory
    that there has to be sub-class of people that do all the work.
  180. Nixon said he was
    supported by the silent majority that are horrified of what is
    happening to their country.
    "Silent Majority" and "Middle America"
  181. ran for democratic
    platform in the election of 1968 against LBJ. Anti-Vietnam war.
    Eugene McCarthy
  182. The guy who shot Bobby
    Sirhan Sirhan
  183. was one of the
    founding members of the Youth
    International Party
    or Yippies, along with Abbie Hoffman.
    Jerry Rubin
  184. Johnson always
    feared that Bobby Kennedy would run for President and when he does,
    Johnson withdraws.
    Johnson withdraws nomination March 31, 1968
  185. Lyndon
    had announced he would not seek a second term, the purpose of the
    convention was to select a new nominee to run as the Democratic
    Party’s candidate for the office
    Democratic Convention 1968
  186. George Wallace’s
    party. He ran on this ticket.
    American Independence Party
  187. a Pentagon worker
    stole and released all info about how the war was to gain US prestige
    and not for the sake of the Vietnamese.
    Pentagon Papers
  188. where anti-war
    protests happened that led to 3 students getting killed by the
    National Guard.
    Kent State
Card Set
Brinkley Terms Chapter 30 and 31
History final stuff
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