Ch 25 ML

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  1. The ___ ___ is a series of ductless glands that secrete messanger molecules called ___ into the circulation.
    Endocrine system, hormones.
  2. The Endocrine system controls and interrogates the ___ of other organ systems in the body.
  3. The endocrine system resembles the ___ ___.
    Nervous system.
  4. Because hormones travel more ___ than nerve impulses, the endocrine system tends to regulate slow processes--such as growth and metabolism.
  5. The endocrine system is responsible for some major process-like growth of the body and of the ___ organs, and maintenence of proper blood chemistry.
  6. The purely endocrine organs are the ___ ___ at the base of the brain.
    Pituitary Gland.
  7. Another endocrine organ is the ___ ___, which is in the roof of the diencephalon.
    Penial Gland.
  8. One of the endocrine organs is the ___ ___, which are on the kidneys.
    Adrenal Glands.
  9. There are two adrenal glands, the ___ ___ and the ___ ___.
    Adrenal cortex, Adrenal medulla.
  10. Organs that belong to other body systems, but also contain a large portion of endocrine cells, include the pancreas, the thymus, the ____, and the hypothalmus.
  11. The hypothalmus produces hormones in addition to performing its nervous functions, so it is considered a _____ organ.
  12. The endocrine system is so diverse that is also includes hormone secreting neurons, ____ ____ and fibroblast-like cells.
    Muscle Cells.
  13. Endocrine glands are richly supplied with ___ and ___ vessels.
    Blood, lymphatic.
  14. After endocrine cells release their hormones into the surrounding extracellular space the hormones immediately enter the ___ capillaries
  15. The body produces many hormones, but belong to 1 of 2 broad molecular catergories: amino acid-based molecules and ____ molecules.
  16. ____ include modified amino acids, peptides, and proteins.
    Amino acid-based hormones.
  17. ___ by contrast are lipid molecules derived from cholesterol.
  18. All major hormones circulate throughout the entire body, leave the bloodsteam at capillaries, and encounter virtually ___ ____.
    All tissues.
  19. A given hormone influences only specific tissue cells called ____ ____.
    Target cells.
  20. The ability of a target cell to respond to a hormone depends on the presence of specific ____ molecules on the target cell to which that particular hormone can bind.
  21. Each kind of ____ produces its own characteristic effects within the body.
  22. There are three types of stimuli that secrete hormones from endocrine cells, what are they?
    Humoral, neural, hormonal stimuli.
  23. Endocrine glands that secrete their hormones in direct response to changing levels of ions or nutrients in the blood are said to be controlled by ____ ____ .
    Humoral stimuli.
  24. The secretion of a few endocrine glands is controlled by ____ ____.
    Neural stimuli.
  25. Sympathetic nerve fibers stimulate cells in the adrenal medulla to release epinephrine and norepinephrine during fight or flight situations, this is an example ___ ___.
    Neural stimuli.
  26. Many endocrine glands secrete their hormones in response to ____ ____ received from other endocrine glands.
    Hormonal stimuli.
  27. The ____ of the brain secretes some hormones that stimulate the anterior part of the pituitary glands to secrete it's hormones.
  28. No matter what hormone secretion is always controlled by ____ ____.
    Feedback loops.
  29. In a ____ feedback loop, more hormones are secreted if it's blood concentration declines below a minimum set point--then hormone production is stopped if the maximum set point is exceeded.
  30. ___ ___ stimulates growth of the entire body by stimulating body cells to increase their production proteins.
    Growth hormone. (GH)
  31. ___ is a hormone that stimulates the manufacture of milk by the breast.
    Prolactin (PRL)
  32. ___ - ____ hormone which prompts the thyroid gland to secrete its own hormone, ultimately controlling metabolic rate
    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  33. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete hormones that help people cope with ___.
  34. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone apparently ____ skin pigmentation.
  35. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) act on the ___, stimulating maturation of the sex cells and inducing the secretion of sex hormones.
  36. Made in the neurons of the superoptic nucleus ___ ___, which is also called vasopressin, targets the collecting ducts and distal tubules in the kidney.
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  37. ____ helps the body maintain as much fluid as possible when thirsty or when fluid loss occurs.
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
  38. ____ induces contraction of the smooth muscle of the reproductive organs in both male and females.
  39. Oxytocin signals during ____.
  40. Thyroid glands secrete ___ ___.
    Thyroid hormone (TH)
  41. ___ ___ main function is increasing the basal metobolic rate (the rate at which the body uses oxygen to transform nutrients into energy).
    Thyroid hormones (TH).
  42. Individuals who secrete ___ of Thyroid hormones have a high activity level, are fidgity and continuously feel warm.
  43. Those who do not produce thyroid hormones are ___ and feel cold.
  44. ___ is secreted when blood calcium levels are high.
  45. ___ has no demonstratable function is adults it seems to act mostly during childhood.
  46. ___ ___ increases the concentration of Ca2+(calcium) whenever it falls below threshold value.
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH).
  47. ___ ___ is essential to life because low calcium levels lead to low neural muscular disorders.
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH).
  48. Remember that parathyroid hormone and calcitonin have opposite effects PTH ___ blood calcium whereas calcitonin ___ it.
    Raises, lowers.
  49. The hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex are ____.
  50. The main mineralocorticoid called ____ is secreted in response to a decline in either blood volume or blood pressure.
  51. Glucocorticoids, of which ___is the main type are secreted to help the body deal with stressful situations such as, fasting, anxiety, trauma, crowding, and infection.
  52. The ___ ___ is a small pinecone shape structure.
    Penial gland.
  53. The brain signals the penialocyte to secrete the hormone _____, which helps regulate routine rhythms.
  54. The endocrine cells at the pancreas are contained in spherical bodies are called pancreatic islets or ____ of ____-- which about a million of which are scattered.
    Islets of langerhans.
  55. Alpha cells secrete ____ which is a hormone that signals liver cells to release glucose from their glycogen stores, thus raising blood sugar levels whenever they fall too low.
  56. Beta cells (B cells) secrete ____which is a hormone which signals most cells of the body to take up glucose from the blood and promotes the storage of glucose as a glycogen in the liver.
  57. Delta cells (D cells) secrete ____, a hormone that inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin.
  58. Atrial natriuretic peptid (ANP) is secreted from heart which is a hormone that decreases excess blood ____ and _____ and high blood sodium concentration, which is primarily done by stimulating the kidney to increase its secretion of salt and its production of salty urine.
    Pressure, volume.
  59. Besides sustaining the fetus during pregnancy the placenta secretes several ___ and ___ hormones.
    Steroid, protein.
  60. The kidneys secrete the protein hormone ____ which indirectly signals the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone.
  61. ____ is secreted to signal the bone marrow to increase the production of red blood cells.
  62. Without ___ the bones would weaken from insufficent calcium.
    Vitamin D.
  63. ____ often is results from a tumor in an endocrine gland in which the rapidly proliferating tumor cells secrete hormones and a uncontrollable rate.
  64. ___ typically results from damage to the endocrine gland by infection, autoimmune attack, or physical trauma.
  65. A tumor that causes hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) in children causes ___, in which the child grows extremely fast and becomes very tall.
  66. Hyposecretion of growth hormone (GH) in children produces ___ ___, who have bodies of normal proportions but rarely reach 4 feet in height.
    Pituitary dwarfes.
  67. ____ ____ affects about 7% of Americans and has a strong hereditary component--It is caused either by insufficient secretion of insulin or resistance of body cells to the affects of insulin.
    Diabetes mellitus.
  68. Of the two types of diabetes mellitus, the more serious type is ___ ___ diabetes.
    Type 1.
  69. Research on ___ ___ diabetes has demonstrated that regular exercise and careful management of diet and blood sugar level can delay complications.
    Type 1.
  70. ___ ___ diabetes accounts for over 90% of all cases of diabetes.
    Type 2.
  71. ____ ____-- apparently an autoimmune disease in which the immune system makes abnormal antibodies and oversecrete Thyroid hormone (TH) of follicle cells of the thyroid.
    Graves disease.
  72. Typical signs of ___ ___ elevated metobolic rate, rapid heart rate, sweating, nervousness, and weightloss despite normal food intake.
    Graves disease.
  73. Graves Disease develops most often in ___ aged women and affects ____ of every ____ women.
    Middle, one of every twenty.
  74. Adult hypothyroidism or myxedema is the result of _____-- occurs in _% of women and _% of men.
    Hyposecretion, 7%, 3%.
  75. Hypothyroidism can also result from insufficient amounts of ___ in the diet--in such cases the thyroid gland enlarges.
  76. When the thyroid gland enlarges in the front part of the neck it is called a ___ ___.
    Endemic goiter.
  77. In children hypothyroidism leads to ___-- a condition characterized by a short disproportionate body, a thick tongue and neck, and mental retardation.
  78. ___ ___, is the major hyposecretory disorder of the adrenal cortex.
    Addisons disease.
  79. Symptoms of ___ ___ include: fatigue, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain.
    Addisons disease.
  80. The synthesis and release of ____ hormones diminish somewhat with normal aging.
  81. The parathyroid glands change ____ with age.
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Ch 25 ML
ch 25 ML bio
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