Integument, Skull

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annzors
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87275
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Integument, Skull
Updated:
2011-05-22 23:26:00
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Vertebrates Biology
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  1. Dead layer of integument is called? Living? And its origin?
    Made of?
    Consists of?
    • Stratum corneum (ecto); Stratum germinativum (meso)
    • Keratin
    • Shedding scales, claws, hooves, nails, layer outside horn, ballen, beaks cover, feathers, hair
  2. Name some glands (6)
    • Mucous
    • Granular
    • Avian or uropygial
    • Sebaceous
    • Sweat or sudoriferous
    • Mammary
  3. Examples of dermal bones, and orgin?
    • shark scales, pushed out of epidermis
    • antlers andd horns
    • armadillo
    • turtle
    • teeth and scales are derivative...
    • mesenchyme origin
  4. Name the types of scales and key characteristics.
    • Cosmoid: cosmine enamel, bone, pulp
    • Ganoid: ganoin enamel, lamellar or vascular bone, pulp
    • Placoid: enamel, dermal derivatives, dentine, goes thru epidermis, eg dogfish
    • Cycloid (round): dermal bone, thin epidermal cover
    • Ctenoid (comb): same as above
  5. Teeth, 3 main components
    • enamel [epi] (hardest) ; eg ganoin
    • dentin [dermal + neural crest] (harder "bone") ; eg cosmine
    • pump cavity (contaisn blood vessels and nerves)\
    • Dermal bone origin...
  6. Name 3 types of teeth attachment/insertion.
    • Acrodont (end)
    • Pleurodont (side)
    • Thecodont (cup)
  7. Teeth shape (2)
    • Homodont / isodont
    • Heterodont ; eg mammals
  8. 3 parts of the skull and origins
    • Neurocranium or chondrocranium: neural crests + mesenchymes
    • Splanchnocranium: dermatome (epimere mesoderm)
    • Dermatocranium: neural crest
  9. Temporal Fossae
    Purpose?
    Types?
    • space for jaw muscle expansion
    • attachment
    • Anapsid (fish)
    • Diapsid (rep, birds)
    • Synasid (mammals)
    • Parasid or euryapsid (extinct
    • Otic notch (turles)
  10. Splanchnocranium archs
    • Mandibular = platoquadrate, meckel's cart
    • Hyoid = hyomandibular, ceatohyal, basihyal
    • Gill = pharyngobrachial, epibranchial, ceratobranchial, hypobranchial. basibranchial
  11. Jaw suspension (7)
    • paleopstyly (agnathans, ostracoderms = jawless)
    • uutostyly (placoderm, ratfish)
    • amphistyly (primitive fish, 6 gilled sharks)
    • hyostyly (swining jaws)
    • modified hyostyly (most fish) (sympletic)
    • metautostyly (amphibians, rep, birds)
    • craniostyly = dentary, squamosal
  12. Paleostyly
    • agnathans ostracoderms
    • jawless
    • hyoid arch with girll arch
  13. autostyly
    • placoderms, ratfish
    • hyoid arch gives no support
    • platoquadrate, meckel's cart = mandibular
  14. amphistyly
    • primitive fish, 6 gilled sharks
    • double suspension
    • hyomandibular stabilizes posterior end of jaws
  15. hyostyly
    • some fish
    • swinging jaw
    • to poen wider and striking purpose
    • retracted to swim
    • hyomandibular = ear
  16. modified hyostyly
    • telost fish
    • sympletic bone
    • hyomandibular = ear
  17. craniostyly
    • squamosal ; upper
    • dentary ; lower
    • hyomandibular = stapes
    • articular = malleus
    • quadrate = incus
  18. metautostyly
    • amphibians, reptiles, birds
    • uppder suspense lower
    • quadrate
    • (hyomandibular) columella = ear
    • articular
    • dentary

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