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  1. Upper respiratory tract?
    Nasal Cavity, Pharnyx, Laynyx
  2. Functions of nasal cavity?
    Warms and moistens inhaled air, contains sense organs of smell
  3. Functions of Pharnyx (throat)
    Passageway for food, liquids, and air
  4. Nasal Polyps
    • painless, noncancerous
    • tissue growths that may project from the nasal mucosa. Usually associated with chronic
    • hay fever
  5. Paranasal sinuses
    • frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal, & ethmoidal
    • They drain into the nasal cavity.
    • They help lighten the skull bones and serve as
    • resonant chambers that enhance the production of sound
  6. Sinustisis
    • sinus infections that are usually developed from
    • the cold where the nasal mucosa is inflamed.
    • Symptoms: pressure, pain, headache, tenderness,
    • swelling, & redness
  7. Conchae
    • usually called turbinates.
    • Increases the surface of air that enters and
    • flows though the naval cavity
    • When air comes in and passes through, it is
    • usally warmed and humidified
  8. Functions of larnyx (voice box)
    • Air distribution; passageway for air to move to
    • and from lungs
    • Voice production
  9. Structures of lower respiratory tract
    Trachea, left & right primary bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli Image Upload
  10. Mechanics of breathing
    • Pulmonary ventilation
    • Inspiration (inhale)
    • Muscles increase the volume of thorax
    • Includes diaphragm and external intercostals
    • Expiration (exhale)
    • When exhaling, the thorax returns to its normal
    • resting size and shape
    • When air goes in and out of the lungs, it causes
    • the shape and size of the thoracic cavity to change, which causes the air
    • pressure within the cavity and lungs to change.
    • Air pressure decreases when we inhale
    • Air pressure increases when we exhale
  11. Transporting Oxygen and Carbon dioxide
    • Oxygen:
    • Only
    • small amounts of oxygen can be dissolved in blood
    • Most oxygen combines with hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin to be carried in blood.
    • To combine hemoglobin, oxygen has to diffuse into
    • the red blood cells to form oxyhemoglobin. Pg 470

    • Carbon Dioxide
    • It regulates the pH of the body fluids, but if there is too much in the body, it
    • can be toxic.
    • To get
    • rid of CO2 is by exhaling and the alveoli
  12. Lung Volume and Capacities
    • VD = TV + IRV+ ERV
    • Tidal Volume: amount normally breathed in our out
    • with each breath
    • Vital Capacity: largest amount of air that one
    • can breathe out in one expiration
    • Expiratory Reserve Volume: amount of air that can
    • be forcibly exhaled afer expiring the tidal volume
    • Inspiratory Reserve Volume: amount of air that
    • can be forcibly inhaled after a normal inspiration
    • Residual Volume: air that remains in the lungs
    • afer the most forceful expiration
  13. Eupnea
    Normal breathing
  14. Hypervenilation
    Rapid, deep respirations
  15. Hypovenilation
    slow, shallow respirations
  16. Dyspnea
    labored/difficult respirations
  17. Orthopnea
    Dyspnea relieved by moving into an upright position
  18. Apnea
    Stopped respiriation
  19. Cheyne Stokes Respiration
    • cycles of alternating apnea
    • and hyperventilation associated with critical conditions
  20. Respiratory Arrest
    Failture to resume breathing after apnea
  21. Bronchitis
    inflammation of bronchi and trachea
  22. Pneumonia
    • Acute inflammation in which the lung airways
    • become blocked with thick exudates

    • Accumulation of fluid
    • Lobar pneumonia- affects entire lobe of lung

    Bronchopneumonia- infection scattered along bronchial tree
  23. Emphysema
    • Reduced surface area of lungs caused by rupture
    • or other damage to alveoli
    • Enlarged alveoli
    • Since there’s a rupture, they can’t do their job
    • and take in oxygen
    • Caused by smoking
  24. Tuberculosis
    • Chronic, highly contagious lung infection
    • characterized by tubercles in the lung
    • Can progress to involve tissues outside the lungs
    • and pleurae
    • Chronic bacterial infection
  25. Asthma
    Reoccurring spasms of the airways accompanied by mucous and edema
  26. Chronic Obstructive pulmonary Disease
    From preexisting bstructive conditions, irreversible
  27. Lung Cancer
    Malignancy of lung tissue
Card Set:
2011-05-23 03:49:13

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