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2011-05-23 03:55:13
micro chap one

microbiology chapter 1
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  1. The specialized area of biology that deals w/ microorganisms or microbes.
  2. Microscopic organisms too small to be seen w/o magnification.
    Microorganisms or microbes
  3. Plants, animals, and microorganisms can be infected by these noncellular, parasitic, protein-coated genetic elements that are dependent on their infected host.
  4. Name six main types of microorganisms. Name four additional ones.
    • bacteria
    • fungi
    • algae
    • virus
    • protozoa
    • helminths

    • cyanobacteria (blue green algae)
    • archeobacteria
    • prions (animal pathogen, Mad Cow, no nucleic acid)/viroids (plant pathogens, single strand RNA w/o protein coating)
    • deficient bacteria (typhus; chlamydia; intracellular parasite, must have host, does not produce ATP)
  5. Prokaryotes first appear.
    3.5 million years ago
  6. Eukaryotes appear.
    1.8 billion years ago
  7. Light fueled conversion of carbon dioxide to organic material, accompanied by the formation of oxygen.
  8. T/F? Photosynthetic microorganisms are responsible for more than 50% of the earth's photosynthesis.
  9. The breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycles of living things.
  10. Many of these are are produced by microbes living in the environment and the digestive tracts of animals.
    greenhouse gases
  11. Percentage of microorganisms that exist beneath and within the earth's crust.
  12. Baker's and brewer's yeast are types of the microorganisms.
    single-celled fungi
  13. Area of biotechnology that manipulates the genetics of microbes, plants, and animals for the purpose of creating new products and genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
    Genetic engineering
  14. Technique that transfers genetic material from one organism to another to deliberately alter DNA.
    Recombinant DNA
  15. T/F? Microbes can be engineered to synthesize desireable proteins such as drugs, hormones, and enzymes.
    True. Bacteria = antibiotics, yeasts = insulin, pigs = human hemoglobin, plants that contain natural pesticides, fruits that do not ripen too rapidly.
  16. Process that involves introducing microbes into the environment to restore stability or to clean up toxic pollutants. Relies on many different microbes working together.
  17. T/F? The majority of microorganisms that associate w/ humans are harmful.
    False. Most are beneficial.
  18. What is the approximate number of microbes that can cause human disease?
  19. Number of deaths from infectious diseases worldwide.
    13 million annually
  20. Infectious disease that are on the rise. (4)
    • SARS
    • AIDS
    • Hep C
    • viral enchephalitis
  21. Infectious diseases that have been eradicated. (4)
    • polio
    • measles
    • leprosy
    • those caused by certain parasitic worms
  22. Most common infectious cause of death.
    respiratory infection
  23. Bacterium that causes gastric ulcers.
  24. T/F? An association has been established between certain cancers and viruses.
  25. Diabetes have been linked to this virus.
    Coxsackie virus
  26. Virus that has been linked to schizophrenia.
    borna agent
  27. T/F? Diseases like multiple sclerosis, OCD, and coronary artery disease have been linked to chronic infections w/ microbes or viruses.
  28. Which are smaller and lack organelles, pro- or eukaryotic cells?
  29. Small double membrane bound structures that perform specific functions. i.e. nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts.
  30. T/F? All prokaryotes are microorganisms, but only some eukaryotes are microorganisms.
  31. T/F? A virus contains both DNA and RNA.
    False. They contain either but never both.
  32. Microbes that require interactions w/ other organisms.
  33. Provided the earliest record of microbes.
    Robert Hooke.
  34. Developed a single lens microscope. Observed "animalcules" in water and plaque from teeth. Father of bacteriology and protozoology.
  35. Conducted an experiment w/ meat in jars that disproved the spontaneous generation of maggots,
  36. Conducted an experiment with sterilized swan neck bottles and proved that a cell comes from a cell. Helped understand the microbial role in wine and beer formation.
  37. When was the first prototype of the modern compound microscope made?
    Mid-1800s. Capable of 1000x magnification
  38. An entire body of ideas that expresses or explains mant aspects of a phenomenon, often developed through years of research and added to or modified by new findings.
  39. Provided initial evidence that some microbes in dust and air have very high heat resistance.
  40. Discovered and detailed heat-resistant bacterial endospores.
  41. Being completely free of all life forms and virus particles.
  42. His studies linked microbes w/ a specific disease. Established postulates - series of proofs that verified the germ theory. Along w/ colleagues, invented most culturing techniques.
  43. Physician who observed that mothers who delivered at home had fewer infections than those who gave birth in hospitals. Semmelweis showed that women became infected after examinations had been performed by physicians who had just done autopsies.
  44. Introduced aseptic techniques aimed at reducing microbes in a medical setting and preventing wound infections.
  45. A theory supported by much data collected over time.
  46. The science of classifying living things. Linne or Linnaeus laid down basic rules for classification.
  47. Three primary concerns of modern taxonomy.
    • naming
    • classifying
    • identifying
  48. The assignment of scientific names to various the various taxonomic categories and individual organisms.
  49. The orderly arrangement of organisms into a hierarchy of taxa.
  50. Discovering and recording traits or organisms so that they may be recognized or named and olaced in an overall taxonomic scheme.
  51. Taxonomic categories from top to bottom.
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum (or division)
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  52. The method of assigning scientific or specific name. The name is a combo of the generic (genus) name followed by the species name.
    binomial system of nomenclature
  53. Founded on the two preconceptions that 1) all new species originate from preexisting species and 2) closely related organisms have similar features because they evolved from a common ancestor. Accounts for millions of different species on earth and their adaption to the many diverse habitats.
  54. The study of structure of organisms
  55. The study of function
  56. The study of inheritance of organisms.
  57. Developed the five kingdom system for general taxonomic arrangements or kingdoms based on structural similarities and differences and the way organisms obtained nutrition.
  58. Whittaker's 5 major kingdoms, and the two major cell types.
    • monera
    • protists
    • plants
    • fungi
    • animals

    • prokaryotic
    • eukaryotic
  59. Woese discovered that the macromolecule located in this organelles was highly conserved and nearly identical in organisms within the species.
  60. Archaea, characterized by their ability to live in extreme conditions, were grouped with these before it was discovered that its ssu rRNA was significantly different.
    Bacteria, as archaeabacteria.
  61. Archaea's prokarytic structure and close relation to eukaryotes resulted in Woese and Fox to create these major taxonomic units. Name them (3).

    • Archaea (pro-)
    • Bacteria (pro-)
    • Eukarya (eu-)
  62. T/F? Viruses belong to the domain bacteria.
    False. Not included in any classification or evolutionary scheme. They are not cells or organisms.
  63. Which of the following parts was absent from Leeuwnhoek's microscopes?

    focusing screw
    specimen holder
  64. Term that refers to spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter.
  65. Couple responsible for agar.