Micro1

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RubyRose
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87290
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Micro1
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2011-05-23 03:55:13
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micro chap one
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microbiology chapter 1
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  1. The specialized area of biology that deals w/ microorganisms or microbes.
    Microbiology
  2. Microscopic organisms too small to be seen w/o magnification.
    Microorganisms or microbes
  3. Plants, animals, and microorganisms can be infected by these noncellular, parasitic, protein-coated genetic elements that are dependent on their infected host.
    Viruses
  4. Name six main types of microorganisms. Name four additional ones.
    • bacteria
    • fungi
    • algae
    • virus
    • protozoa
    • helminths

    • cyanobacteria (blue green algae)
    • archeobacteria
    • prions (animal pathogen, Mad Cow, no nucleic acid)/viroids (plant pathogens, single strand RNA w/o protein coating)
    • deficient bacteria (typhus; chlamydia; intracellular parasite, must have host, does not produce ATP)
  5. Prokaryotes first appear.
    3.5 million years ago
  6. Eukaryotes appear.
    1.8 billion years ago
  7. Light fueled conversion of carbon dioxide to organic material, accompanied by the formation of oxygen.
    Photosynthesis
  8. T/F? Photosynthetic microorganisms are responsible for more than 50% of the earth's photosynthesis.
    True
  9. The breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycles of living things.
    Decomposition
  10. Many of these are are produced by microbes living in the environment and the digestive tracts of animals.
    greenhouse gases
  11. Percentage of microorganisms that exist beneath and within the earth's crust.
    50%
  12. Baker's and brewer's yeast are types of the microorganisms.
    single-celled fungi
  13. Area of biotechnology that manipulates the genetics of microbes, plants, and animals for the purpose of creating new products and genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
    Genetic engineering
  14. Technique that transfers genetic material from one organism to another to deliberately alter DNA.
    Recombinant DNA
  15. T/F? Microbes can be engineered to synthesize desireable proteins such as drugs, hormones, and enzymes.
    True. Bacteria = antibiotics, yeasts = insulin, pigs = human hemoglobin, plants that contain natural pesticides, fruits that do not ripen too rapidly.
  16. Process that involves introducing microbes into the environment to restore stability or to clean up toxic pollutants. Relies on many different microbes working together.
    Bioremdiation
  17. T/F? The majority of microorganisms that associate w/ humans are harmful.
    False. Most are beneficial.
  18. What is the approximate number of microbes that can cause human disease?
    2000
  19. Number of deaths from infectious diseases worldwide.
    13 million annually
  20. Infectious disease that are on the rise. (4)
    • SARS
    • AIDS
    • Hep C
    • viral enchephalitis
  21. Infectious diseases that have been eradicated. (4)
    • polio
    • measles
    • leprosy
    • those caused by certain parasitic worms
  22. Most common infectious cause of death.
    respiratory infection
  23. Bacterium that causes gastric ulcers.
    Helicobacter
  24. T/F? An association has been established between certain cancers and viruses.
    True
  25. Diabetes have been linked to this virus.
    Coxsackie virus
  26. Virus that has been linked to schizophrenia.
    borna agent
  27. T/F? Diseases like multiple sclerosis, OCD, and coronary artery disease have been linked to chronic infections w/ microbes or viruses.
    True
  28. Which are smaller and lack organelles, pro- or eukaryotic cells?
    prokaryotic
  29. Small double membrane bound structures that perform specific functions. i.e. nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts.
    organelles
  30. T/F? All prokaryotes are microorganisms, but only some eukaryotes are microorganisms.
    True
  31. T/F? A virus contains both DNA and RNA.
    False. They contain either but never both.
  32. Microbes that require interactions w/ other organisms.
    parasites
  33. Provided the earliest record of microbes.
    Robert Hooke.
  34. Developed a single lens microscope. Observed "animalcules" in water and plaque from teeth. Father of bacteriology and protozoology.
    Leeuwenhoek
  35. Conducted an experiment w/ meat in jars that disproved the spontaneous generation of maggots,
    Redi
  36. Conducted an experiment with sterilized swan neck bottles and proved that a cell comes from a cell. Helped understand the microbial role in wine and beer formation.
    Pasteur
  37. When was the first prototype of the modern compound microscope made?
    Mid-1800s. Capable of 1000x magnification
  38. An entire body of ideas that expresses or explains mant aspects of a phenomenon, often developed through years of research and added to or modified by new findings.
    Theory
  39. Provided initial evidence that some microbes in dust and air have very high heat resistance.
    Tyndall
  40. Discovered and detailed heat-resistant bacterial endospores.
    Cohn
  41. Being completely free of all life forms and virus particles.
    sterile
  42. His studies linked microbes w/ a specific disease. Established postulates - series of proofs that verified the germ theory. Along w/ colleagues, invented most culturing techniques.
    Koch
  43. Physician who observed that mothers who delivered at home had fewer infections than those who gave birth in hospitals. Semmelweis showed that women became infected after examinations had been performed by physicians who had just done autopsies.
    Holmes
  44. Introduced aseptic techniques aimed at reducing microbes in a medical setting and preventing wound infections.
    Lister
  45. A theory supported by much data collected over time.
    law
  46. The science of classifying living things. Linne or Linnaeus laid down basic rules for classification.
    taxonomy
  47. Three primary concerns of modern taxonomy.
    • naming
    • classifying
    • identifying
  48. The assignment of scientific names to various the various taxonomic categories and individual organisms.
    nomenclature
  49. The orderly arrangement of organisms into a hierarchy of taxa.
    classification
  50. Discovering and recording traits or organisms so that they may be recognized or named and olaced in an overall taxonomic scheme.
    identification
  51. Taxonomic categories from top to bottom.
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum (or division)
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  52. The method of assigning scientific or specific name. The name is a combo of the generic (genus) name followed by the species name.
    binomial system of nomenclature
  53. Founded on the two preconceptions that 1) all new species originate from preexisting species and 2) closely related organisms have similar features because they evolved from a common ancestor. Accounts for millions of different species on earth and their adaption to the many diverse habitats.
    evolution
  54. The study of structure of organisms
    morphology
  55. The study of function
    physiology
  56. The study of inheritance of organisms.
    Genetics
  57. Developed the five kingdom system for general taxonomic arrangements or kingdoms based on structural similarities and differences and the way organisms obtained nutrition.
    Whittaker
  58. Whittaker's 5 major kingdoms, and the two major cell types.
    • monera
    • protists
    • plants
    • fungi
    • animals

    • prokaryotic
    • eukaryotic
  59. Woese discovered that the macromolecule located in this organelles was highly conserved and nearly identical in organisms within the species.
    ribosome
  60. Archaea, characterized by their ability to live in extreme conditions, were grouped with these before it was discovered that its ssu rRNA was significantly different.
    Bacteria, as archaeabacteria.
  61. Archaea's prokarytic structure and close relation to eukaryotes resulted in Woese and Fox to create these major taxonomic units. Name them (3).
    Domains

    • Archaea (pro-)
    • Bacteria (pro-)
    • Eukarya (eu-)
  62. T/F? Viruses belong to the domain bacteria.
    False. Not included in any classification or evolutionary scheme. They are not cells or organisms.
  63. Which of the following parts was absent from Leeuwnhoek's microscopes?

    focusing screw
    lens
    specimen holder
    condenser
    condenser
  64. Term that refers to spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter.
    abiogenesis
  65. Couple responsible for agar.
    Hess(e)s

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