micro 2

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micro 2
2011-05-24 01:45:22
micro chap two

micro chap two
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  1. A tiny particle that cannot be subdivided into smaller substances w/o losing its properties.
  2. Isotopes are variant forms of the same element that differ in the number of these.
  3. How many orbitals in the first shell of an atom?
    Second? Third? Fourth?
    How many electrons can each shell hold?
    • 1, 4, 9, 16
    • 2, 8, 18, 32
  4. A distinct chemical substance that results from the combination of two or more atoms.
  5. A molecule that is a combination of 2 or more different elements.
  6. T/F? Proteins, sugars, and fats are biological molecules.
  7. Formed when two or more atoms share, lose, or gain electrons to form a molecule or compound.
    chemical bond
  8. What determine's an element's valence?
    Number of electrons in the outermost shell
  9. Type of bond formed when atoms share electrons rather than donating or gaining them.
    Covalent (cooperative valence)
  10. Most molecules associated with living things are composed of these common biological elements bound by single or double covaelant bonds. (6)
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • sulfur
    • nitrogen
    • phosphorus
  11. Phenomenon that occurs when an ionic bond is broken and atoms of a neutral molecule dissociate into unattached charged particles.
  12. This weak type of bond forms between a hydrogen covalently bonded to one molecule and and an oxygen or nitrogen on the same or differnt molecule.
    hydrogen bond
  13. Weak attractions that occur between molecules showing low levels of polarity.
    van der Waals forces
  14. Molecules that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
  15. A chemical is usually inorganic if it does not contain both of these elements.
    carbon and hydrogen
  16. Organic compounds produced (or components of) living things
  17. Four main families of biochemicals
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  18. Carbs, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids? Their main functions are as cell components, cell secretions, and nutrient and energy stores.
  19. Carbs, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acid? "Shapers of life" that have many biological roles in cell structure and cell metabolism.
  20. Except for lipids, all macromolecules ( large organic molecules ) are built up by polymerization of these smaller molecular subunits.
  21. Members of this chemical class resemble combinations of carbon and water, though some may contain sulfur or nitrogen. ( 2 or more hydroxyl groups and an aldehyde or a ketone )
  22. ?-saccharide is a simple polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone containing 3 to 7 carbons.
  23. ?-saccharide is a polymer of 5 or more monosaccharides, linear or branched
  24. Suffix designated to sugars.
  25. Type of bond that links the subunits of disaccharides and polysaccharides.
    glycosidic bonds
  26. T/F? Agar is a polysaccharide that is a component of seaweed.
  27. T/F? Monosaccharides like cellulose, peptidoglycan, and lipopolysaccharide compose various types of cell walls.
    False. Polysaccharides.
  28. The "sugar-coating" of many cells. Function as receptors and help attach to other cells. A polysaccharide.
  29. The form in which polysaccarides are usually stored by cells. Glucose polymers.
    glycogen (starch)
  30. Category of storage lipids that include fats and oils.
    triglycerides, glydceride bound to three fatty acids.
  31. Class of lipid that serves as a major structural component of cell membranes. Two fatty acids attached to a glycerol w/ phosphate group binding site on the third glycerol.
  32. Lipids that are complex ringed compounds commonly found in cell membranes and animal hormones.
    steroids, best known = sterol (steroid w/OH) called cholesterol.
  33. Fatty acid derivative that function in inflammatory and allergic reactions, reactions, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction
  34. Chemically, this is an ester formed between a long-chain alcohol and a saturated fatty acid. It serves as a natural waterproofing for fur, feathers, fruits, leaves, human skin, and insect exoskeletons. It contributes to the pathogenicity of bacteria that caue TB and leprosy.
  35. Exist in 20 different naturally occuring forms. Skeleton consists of a carbon linked to ______, a carboxyl group, a H, and a variable R group.
    amino acid
  36. T/F? The pH and temperature of a protein's immediate environment can dictate its structure and shape.
  37. Various combinations of amino acids account for a nearly infinite variety of these.
  38. This type of covalent bond forms between the amino group of one and the carboxyl group of another amino acid.
    peptide bond, peptide for short chains, polypeptide for unspecified but usually more than 20- a smaller subunit of a protein
  39. Proteins contain a minimum of how many amino acids?
  40. Type, number, and order of amino acids in a chain.
    Primary structure
  41. When various functional groups exposed on the outer surface of a moleculeinteract by forming hydrogen bonds.
    secondary structure (alpha helix, beta-pleated sheets)
  42. Degree of torsion created by additional bonds between functional groups.
  43. Some complex proteins, i.e. antibodies & some enzymes, with more than one polypeptide assume this.
    quaternary structure
  44. Complex glycoproteins with specificregions for the attachment of bacteria, viruses, other microbes.
  45. The functional 3-D form of a protein is called its native state, if disrupted by heat, acid, alcohol, or a disinfectant the protein is said to be this.
  46. T/F? DNA and RNA can be found in the cell nucleus, other parts of nucleated cells, bacteria, and viruses.
  47. DNA and RNA are polymers of these repeating units.
  48. Nucleotides are composed of these three smaller units.
    • nitrogen base
    • a pentose sugar
    • a phosphate
  49. The nitrogen base of DNA and RNA comes in these two forms. ( a two ring and a one ring )
    • purines (2)
    • pyrimidines (1)
  50. What are the two types of purines found in both DNA and RNA ?
    • adenine
    • guanine
  51. What are the three types of pyrimidines?
    • thymine (DNA)
    • cytosine (both)
    • uracil (RNA)
  52. The backbone of nucleic acid acid strands is a chain of these alternating molecules. Nitrogen bases branch of this backbone.
    • phosphate
    • sugar
  53. What does adenine ordinarily pair with? Cytosine?
    • adenine - thymine
    • cytosine - guanine
  54. What are the three major types of RNA that are important for protein synthesis?
    • messenger RNA
    • transfer RNA
    • ribosomal RNA
  55. Type of RNA that delivers the correct amino acids for protein assembly.
  56. RNA that is a copy of a gene that provides the order and type of amino acids in a protein.
    messenger RNA
  57. RNA that is a major component of ribosomes.
    ribosomal RNA
  58. A nucleotide that is a relative of RNA containing adenine, ribose, and three phosphates (instead of one). High energy compound, like guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
    adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  59. Compounds like ATP and GTP give off energy when this happens.
    Bonds between phosphates are broken.
  60. Breakage of the bond of the terminal phosphate generates this which can be converted back to ATP. Serves as an energy depot.
  61. These tend to be spherical, polygoanl, cubial, or cylindrical. Have chromosomes containing DNA and ribosomes for protein synthesis, and complex in function. The fundamental unit of life.
  62. T/F? bacteria and protozoa consist of only a single cell.
  63. Besides animals and plants, eukaryotes can also be found in these. (2)
    • fungi
    • protists