Oral Boards Definitions

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bigfootedbertha
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87309
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Oral Boards Definitions
Updated:
2011-07-20 10:02:58
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medicine
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Studying for oral boards
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  1. Pneumococcal pneumonia
    • Inflammation of the lung parenchyma characterized by consolidation with alveolar air spaces filled with exudates, inflammatory cells, and fibrin.
    • Occurs outside the hospital OR less than 48 hours after admission in a patient who is not hospitalized or residing in a long term care facility for more than 14 days before the onset of symptoms
  2. H. flu Pneumonia
    • Definition- Inflammation of the lung parenchyma characterized by consolidation with alveolar air spaces filled with exudates, inflammatory cells, and fibrin.
    • Occurs outside the hospital OR less than 48 hours after admission in a patient who is not hospitalized or residing in a long term care facility for more than 14 days before the onset of symptoms
  3. Legionella Pneumonia
    Definition: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma characterized by consolidation with alveolar air spaces filled with exudates, inflammatory cells, and fibrin. Necrosis of the inflammatory cells (leukocytoclasis) may be extensive.
  4. Infection of the lung parenchyma that occurs outside the hospital OR less than 48 hours after admission in a patient who is not hospitalized or residing in a long term care facility for more than 14 days before the onset of symptoms.
  5. Klebsiella Pneumonia
    Pneumonia by Kebsiella infection causes inflammation of the alveoli, distal airways and lung parenchyma, also causing alveolar consolidation. The alveoli are often filled with WBC’s, RBC’s, and fibrin.

    Infection of the lung parenchyma that occurs outside the hospital or less than 48 hours after admission in a patient who is not hospitalized or residing in a long term care facility for more than 14 days before the onset of symptoms.
  6. Mycoplasma Pneumonia
    Inflammation of the lung parenchyma characterized by consolidation with alveolar air spaces filled with exudates, inflammatory cells, and fibrin.
  7. Occurs outside the hospital OR less than 48 hours after admission in a patient who is not hospitalized or residing in a long term care facility for more than 14 days before the onset of symptoms
  8. Chronic Bronchitis
    Definition- Excessive secretion of bronchial mucus and is manifested by daily productive cough for 3 months or more in at least 2 consecutive years. Results in chronic respiratory airflow obstruction that is generally progressive, but may be partially reversible and may be accompanied by airway hyperreactivity.
  9. Emphysema
    Definition - Abnormal permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, with destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis. Emphysema is a component of COPD which is a progressivechronic respiratory obstruction disorder
  10. Asthma
    Chronic disorder characterized by chronic airway inflammation and episodic bronchospasm that is completely reversible
  11. HTN
    HTN is blood pressure >140/90, based upon 3 or more BP readings taken at least 1 week apart (with the pt resting for 5 min, no caffeine 1 hr prior and no smoking 30 min prior)
  12. Angina
    • A transient ischemia to the myocardium causing paroxysmal chest squeezing, pressure, or pain that is relieved within 5-10 mins with rest or sublingual nitro
    • Types:
    • · Stable - Predictable
    • oCan change over time
    • oSymptoms can get progressively worse, then crescendo angina
    • oOccur within 4 weeks
    • · Unstable - Unpredictable
    • oOccurs with or without provocation
    • oCan wake from sleep
    • oRapid worsening of stable symptoms, occur within a week
    • When pain lasts longer than 30 mins without relief from rest or sublingual nitro.
    • ·Crescendo- continually worsen
    • · Prinzmetal’s, aka coronary spasm - Coronary vasospasm may occur spontaneously, or by exposure to cold, emotional stress, vasoconstricting medications, or cocaine
    • · Anginal Equivalents, aka atypical
    • Classic Angina:
    • · Pain or Pressure in center of chest- Radiation to jaw and/or left arm
    • · Occurs with exertion
    • · Relieved with rest or NTG
    • · Shortness of Breath (SOB), Nausea
    • Atypical Angina: more common in DM and
    • women
    • · Dyspnea with Exertion (DOE)
    • · Fatigue
    • · Epigastric Pain
    • · Nausea with exertion
    • · Palpitations & back pain with exertion
    • · Jaw/Neck pain & Arm/Shoulder pain exertion
  13. Myocardial Infarction
    Myocardial ischemia usually the result of a focal complete blockage in one of the main coronary arteries.
  14. CHF
    a full spectrum of etiologies, forms and consequences of the heart unable to meet the metabolic demands of the body for oxygen
  15. Anemia
    Reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood due to decreased or inefficient hemoglobin.
  16. IDA
    Due to a decrease in iron stores a microcytic, hypochromic anemia develops.
  17. Viral Hepatitis
    A systemic viral infection predominately affecting the liver
  18. Megaloblastic anemia
    Definition- A group of disorders characterized by the presence of distinctive morphologic appearances of the developing red cells in the bone marrow.

    Anemia with elevated MCV > 100
  19. Hemolytic anemias
    • Condition of an inadequate number of circulating RBCs caused by premature destruction of red blood cells
    • Classified according to whether they’re caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors
  20. Hereditary spherocytosis
    A normocytic hyperchromic hemolytic anemia
  21. G6PD
    A self limiting episodic hemolytic anemia
  22. SCA
    Chronic normocytic hemolytic anemia
  23. Thalassemia
    An inherited blood disorder that causes defective hemoglobin production and leads to hemolysis and anemia
  24. Crohn's Disease
    Chronic, recurrent disease of insidious onset characterized by patchy transmural inflammation, fistula and abscess formation, that can invole any segment of the GI tract from the mouth to the anus.

    Most frequently involves the small bowel and colon.
  25. Ulcerative Colitis
    An idiopathic inflammatory condition that involves the mucosal surface of the colon, resulting in diffuse friability and erosions and bleeding.

    In most patients, the disease is characterized by periods of symptomatic flare-ups and remissions.
  26. IBD
    Umbrella term that includes Crohns and UC. They are inflammatory bowel diseases characterized by exacerbations and remissions.
  27. Obesity
    A state of excess adipose tissue mass, quantified by a BMI>30
  28. Cerebrovascular disease: TIA
    A focal ischemic neurologic deficit of acute onset in which the clinical deficit resolves completely within 24 hours.
  29. Cerebrovascular Disease: CVA
    An abrupt onset of neurological deficit that is attributable to a focal vascular cause. The acute brain injury caused by decreased blood supply or hemorrhage. Third leading cause of death in the US.
  30. Strep pharyngitis
    Acute bacterial infection with GABHS of the pharynx
  31. Otitis Media
    Inflammatory condition of middle ear resulting in dysfunction of eustacian tube in association with a number of illnesses, leading to development of sterile transudate within middle ear and mastoid cavities.
  32. Acute sinusitis
    An inflammatory condition of sinus cavities caused by infectious organisms that lasts for more than 1 wk to < 4 wks duration
  33. Viral Rhinitis
    Inflammation of the nasal mucosa due to a viral infection, also called the common cold

    Non-allergic rhinitis is a diagnosis of rhinitis w/o any immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediation, as documented by allergen skin testing.
  34. PUD-Gastric
    defined as a break in the gastric mucosa extending through the muscularis mucosae, > 5mm in diameter, that arises when the normal mucosal defenses are impaired
  35. PUD: Duodenal
    defined as a break in the duodenal mucosa extending through the muscularis mucosae, > 5mm in diameter, that arises when the normal mucosal defenses are impaired
  36. Acute Renal Failure
    • Rapid decline in GFR and renal function in hours to days, characterized by:
    • o Retention of nitrogenous waste
    • o Oliguria
    • o Increase in serum BUN and creatinine
    • o Electrolyte and fluid imbalances
  37. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Kidney damage for >3 months as demonstrated by progressive and irreversible structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney with or without decreased GFR (<60ml/min) manifested by:
    • o Pathologic abnormalities
    • o Markers of kidney damage
    • § Blood or urine testing
    • § Imaging techniques
  38. Tension Headache
    A “vice-like” headache usually brought on by emotional stress, fatigue, noise or glare
  39. Migraine
    Benign and recurring syndrome of headaces associated with sx of neurologic dyfunction

    • The most common type of headache, usually pulsatile and lateralized.
    • There are 2 types:

    • 1. Classic Migraine: WITH AN AURA
    • Usually visual (field deficits, visual hallucinations of stars, sparks, light flashes, “C” in visual field, etc.)

    Aura may also be sensory or motor (but visual is the most common!)


    • 2. Common Migraine: WITHOUT AN AURA
    • This is the most common type of migraine

    There are no preceding visual, sensory, or motor symptoms
  40. T1DM
    A chronic metabolic disease caused by pancreatic insufficiency (deficiency) of insulin production, resulting in hyperglycemia and end-organ complications such as accelerated atherosclerosis, neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy.
  41. T2DM
    A syndrome of disordered metabolism and inappropriate hyperglycemia b/c of insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion.
  42. Hypothyroidism
    Condition characterized by abnormally low thyroid hormone levels (T3 and T4); happens by primary, secondary, or tertiary failure
  43. Hyperthyroidism
    A condition resulting in increased serum T3 and T4, excessive levels thyroid hormone in the body
  44. Osteoarthritis
    Non-inflammatory degenerative joint disease without systemic symptoms characterized by degeneration of cartilage and hypertrophy of bone at the articular margins
  45. Osteoporosis
    A dz of abnl bone remodeling characterized by a decrease in bone density and total bone volume
  46. Disc herniation
    A tear in the annulus fibrosis of an intervertebral disc allowing the nucleus pulposis to bulge outward. The resultant pressure on spinal nerve roots may cause considerable pain and damage the nerves. The condition most often occurs in the lower back.
  47. Spinal stenosis
    Lumbar spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal and a compression of the nerve roots or a compression of the nutrient arterioles that supply the roots
  48. Dementia
    A syndrome characterized by significant progressive decline in two or more areas of cognitive functioning

    Dementia – Syndrome of diffuse loss of intellectual functions due to organic disease of cerebral hemispheres or subcortical structures sufficient enough to interfere with social or occupational functioning

    Several Types

    • Alzheimer’s Disease MOST COMMON
    • Cortical Lewy Body, Parkinson’s, Picks, NPH
  49. Vascular dementia
    dementia associated with cerebral vascular disease divided into 2 categories: multi-infarct dementia and diffuse white matter disease
  50. Depression
    Mental disorder that presents with depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, feeling of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy, and poor concentration for a minimum of two weeks that causes significant impairment of daily functioning and cannot be accounted for by medical condition, drug alcohol abuse, bereavement, or side effects from meds
  51. Lumbar sprain/strain
    Stretching or tearing of the muscles, tendons, and ligaments in the lumbar region of the spine due to acute injury, most common cause of low back pain
  52. HIV
    HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus; RSV retrovirus transmitted via 4 bodily fluids: blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk
  53. HIV/AIDS
    • HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus; RSV retrovirus transmitted via 4 bodily fluids: blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk·
    • AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Certain conditions (OIs or CA) present that are rare except in cases of serious immune deficiency à pt presents w/ conditions known to happen commonly in HIV infected people
    • AIDS = Pos. HIV serology + CD4 lymphocyte count < 200 cells/mcL or OI or malignancy
    • AIDS indicator conditions include: CNS lymphoma, disseminated/extrapulm. histoplasmosis and M. Tuberculosis, Kaposi’s Sarcoma, Toxo. of brain, candidiasis of esophagus, bronchi, or lungs, PCP pneumonia
  54. AIDS
    • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Certain conditions (OIs or CA) present that are rare except in cases of serious immune deficiency à pt presents w/conditions known to happen commonly in HIV infected people
    • AIDS = Pos. HIV serology + CD4 lymphocyte count < 200 cells/mcL or OI or malignancy
    • AIDS indicator conditions include: CNS lymphoma, disseminated/extrapulm. histoplasmosis and M. Tuberculosis, Kaposi’s Sarcoma, Toxo. of brain, candidiasis of esophagus, bronchi, or lungs, PCP pneumonia
  55. Hepatitis A
    RNA virus primarily transmitted via fecal-oral route, typically by contaminated water
  56. Hepatitis B
    • Hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus with eight different genotypes
    • The infection may become chronic leading to liver failure, liver cancer, or cirrhosis
  57. Hep C
    • A liver disease caused by the RNA-hepatitis C virus (HCV)
    • HCV infection sometimes results in acute illness, but m.c. becomes a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer

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