Psych Chapter 11

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Psych Chapter 11
2011-05-23 16:36:12

Human Development Exam 3
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  1. the study of changes in physiology, cognition and social behavior over the life span
    systematic changes that occur over the lifespan- reflects both maturation (biology based) and learning
    developmental psychology
  2. born with reflexes and ablility to learn environmental contengencies
  3. environmental input impacts brain development
    developmental plasticity
  4. a process by which the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved and those that are not are lost
    "use it or lose it"- explains critical periods
    Synaptic Pruning
  5. biologically determined time periods for the development of specific skills
    critical periods
  6. biologically determined time periods when specific skills develop most easily
    sensitive periods
  7. a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances- it is adaptive
  8. babies become distressed when they lose sight of or are separated from care giver--> around 8-12 months
    separation anxiety
  9. attachment style for a majority of infants who are readily comforted when their caregiver returns after a brief separation
    -comfortable with relationships, easily formed (60% of US)
    secure attachment
  10. style in which infants ignore their caregiver when he or she returns after a brief separation
    -dismissive of relationships (20-25% in US)
    avoidant attachment
  11. style in which infants become extremely upset when their caregiver leaves but reject the caregiver when he/she returns
    -cannot be consoled
    -wnat relationship, but insecure (10-15% in US)
    anxiety/ambivalent attachment
  12. style in which infants give mixed responses when their caregiver leaves and then returns from a short abscence
    disorganized attachment
  13. 3 stages of Ainsworth strage situation test
    explore, separation, reunite
  14. the first stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development during which infants acquire information about the world through their sense and respond reflexively
    -non-reresentational, learn associations, not much thinking-->just exploring world
    Ages 0-2
    Sensorimotor stage
  15. understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen
    -begins about 3-6 months
    object permanence
  16. 2nd stage of Piaget's theory of cog. dev. during which children think symbollicaylly about objects, but reason is based on appearance rather than logic
    -still heavily swayed by sense/appearance
    -centering of focus or concentration on sensory info
    -occurs ages 2-7
    Preoperational Stage
  17. type of processing in which one cannot take the perspective of others
    -ex: 3 mountains test, closing eyes... you can't see them
    egocentric processing
  18. understanding that people have knowledge different from their own
    ex: false belief test (at 4-5 pass test)
    theory of mind
  19. 3rd stage of Piaget's theory of cog dev during which children begin to think about and understand operations in ways that are reversible
    -understands conservation, pass false belief test, know change in sensory info does not mean change in substance
    -improvement in logical reasoning, but not abstract/hypothetical
    -occurs at ages (7-11)
  20. last stage of Piaget's theory of cog dev which involves the ability to think abstractly and to formulate and test hypothesis through deductive logic
    -understand abstract concepts, metaphor, analogical reasoning
    formal operational stage
  21. the ability to explain and predict other people's behavior as a result of recognizing their mental state
    theory of mind
  22. the maturation of skills or ablilities that enable people to live in a world with other people
    social development
  23. Piagets theory of moral development
    • 0-5 premoral
    • 5-9 = moral realism (only black and white)
    • 9+ = moral relativism (rules serve purpose)
  24. earliest level of moral development, in which self-interest determines what is moral
    -oriented to personal consequencees
    -obedience and punishment- if you're bad you're punished
    -naive hedonism- do right to be rewarded
  25. 2nd level of moral reasoning
    rules and the approval of others determines what is moral oriented to others' standards
    -social order, confromity to society
  26. 3rd level of moral reasoning
    decisions about morality depend on abstract principles
    social contract- rules serve the majority-->laws themselves not imporatnt but the inherent contract is
    ex: certain moral principles more important than law
  27. feeling with
  28. feeling for
  29. 1) moral judgement based on intuition, not reasoning, quick and automatic, gut responses, using feeling of disgust as gauge
    2) moral reasoning happens AFTER moral judgement has been made to justify the judgement
    Social Institutionalist model of moralilty
  30. biological differences between men and women
  31. differences because of socialization between men and women
  32. personal beliefs about whether one is male or female
    gender identity
  33. the characteristics associated with males and females because of cultural influence or learning
    gender roles
  34. cognitive strtuctures that influence how people perceive the behaviors of females or males
    gender schemas
  35. Erikson's stage of Identity of Trust vs. Mistrust
    -resolved when we learn the world is safe and that people are loving and reliable
    -ages 0-2
  36. Erikson's stage of Identity: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    -resolved: encouraged to explore the environment, gain feelings of independent self esteem
    -ages 2-3
  37. Erikson's stage of identity: Initiative vs. Guilt
    -resolved when children develop a sense of purpose by taking on responsibilities, develop the capacity to feel guilty for misdeeds
    -ages 4-6
  38. Erikson's stage of Identity: Industry vs Inferiority
    -resolved by working successfully with others, children learn and feel competant
    -ages 7-12
  39. Erikson's stage of identity: Ego Identity vs. Role Confusion
    -resolved by exploring different social roles, adolescents develop a sense of identity
    -ages 13-19
  40. Erikson's stage of Identity: Intamacy vs. Isolation
    -resolved when adults gain the ability to commit to long-term relationships
    -ages 20s
    Young Adulthood
  41. Erikson's stage of Identity: Generativity vs. Stagnation
    -resolved when adults gain sense that they are contributing to the future and caring for future generations
    -ages 30-60
    Middle Adulthood
  42. Erikson's stage of Identity: Integrity vs. Despair
    Resolved when older adults feel a sense of satisfaction that they have lived a good life and developed wisdom
    - ages 60+
    Old Age