microlecture ch5

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shaiangelz
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microlecture ch5
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2011-05-23 16:49:09
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microlecture ch 5
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  1. define metatabolism, and describe the fundamental differences between anabolism and catabolism
    the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism is known as metabolism

    catabolism refers to chemical reactions that result in the breakdown of more complex organic molecules into simpler substances. catabolic reactions usually release energy

    anabolism refers to chemical reactions in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex molecules. anabolic reactions usually require energy

    the energy of catabolic reactions is used to drive anabolic reactions
  2. ID the role of ATP as an intermediate between catabolism and anabolism
    you need the energy (ATP) gained by eating (catabolism) in order to grow (anabolism)
  3. ID the components of an enzyme
    • most enzymes are holoenzymes, consisting of a protein portion (apoenzyme) and a nonprotein portion (cofactor)
    • the cofactor can be a metal ion (iron, copper, magnesium, manganese, zinc, calcium or colbait) or a complex organic molecule known as a coenzyme (NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD, or coenzyme A)
  4. Describe the mechanism of enzymatic action
    • when an enzyme and substract combine, the substrate is transformed, and the enzyme is recovered
    • enzymes are characterized by specificity, which is a function of their active sites
  5. list the factors that influence enzymatic activity
    • at high temps, enzymes undergo denaturation and lose their catalytic properties; at low temps, the reaction rate decreases
    • the pH at which enzymatic activity is maximal is known as the optimum pH
    • within limits, enzymatic activity increases as substrate concentration increases
    • competitive inhibitors compete with the normal substrate for the active site of the enzyme
    • noncompetitive inhibitors act on other parts of the apoenzyme or on the cofactor and decrease the enzyme's ability to combine with the normal substrate
  6. explain what is meant by oxidation-reduction aka redox reaction
    • oxidation is the removal of one or more electrons from a substrate. protons (H+) are often removed with the electrons
    • reduction of a substrate refers to its gain of one or more electrons
    • each time a substance is oxidized, another is simultaneously reduced
  7. explain the overall function of biochemical pathways
    to make and use energy
  8. explain the products of the Krebs cycle
    • aerobic respiration
    • decarboxylation of pyruvic acid produces one CO2 molecule and one acetyl group
    • two-carbon acetyle groups are oxidized in the Krebs cycle. electrons are picked up by NAD+ and FAD for the electron transport chain
    • from one molecule of glucose, oxidation produces six molecules of NADH, two molecules of FADH2, and two molecules of ATP
    • decarboxylation produces six molecules of CO2
  9. compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration
    • during respiration, organic molecules are oxidized. energy is generated from the electron transport chain
    • in aerobic respiration, O2 functions as the final electron acceptor
    • in anaerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is usually an inorganic molecule other than O2
  10. describe the chemical reactions of, and list some products of, fermentation
    • fermenation releases energy from sugars or other organic molecules by oxidation
    • O2 is not required
    • two ATP molecules are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation
    • electrons removed from the substrate reduce NAD+
    • the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule
    • in lactic acid fermentation, pyruvic acid is reduced by NADH to lactic acid
    • in alcohol fermentation, acetaldehyde is recuded by NADH to produce ethanol
    • heterolactic fermenters can use the pentose phosphate pathway to produce lactic acid and ethanol
  11. provide two examples of the use of biochemical tests to id bacteria
  12. compare and contrast the light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis
  13. write a sentence to summarize energy production in cells
  14. metabolism
    • the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism is known as metabolism
    • eating and growing
    • all the chemical reactions in an organism
  15. catabolism
    • catabolism refers to chemical reactions that result in the breakdown of
    • more complex organic molecules into simpler substances. catabolic
    • reactions usually release energy

    • the processes by which a living organism obtains its energy and raw materials from nutrients (releases energy)
    • the eating part
  16. anabolism
    • anabolism refers to chemical reactions in which simpler substances are
    • combined to form more complex molecules. anabolic reactions usually
    • require energy

    • the processes by which energy and raw materials are used to build macromolecules and cellular structures (uses energy)
    • the growing part
  17. enzymes
    • are proteins, produced by living cells, that catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy
    • are generally globular proteins with characteristic 3D shapes
    • are efficient, can operate at relatively lower temps, and are subject to various cellular controls

    • biological catalyzes
    • -specific for a chemical reaction; not used up in that reaction (each oopaloopa does specific jobs ONLY)
    • works with cofactors and coenzymes
    • have optimum temp and pH (not too hot and not too cold)
    • reaction speed depends on the amount of enzyme AND the amount of substrate available (the more oompaloopa the more work is done..and the more material in hand the more work is done)
    • can by stopped or slowed by inhibitors

    protein that has a specific shape

    the little oompaloompas
  18. active site
    • location where it binds to the substrate (the key)
    • where the activity or chemical activity occurs
    • the lock of the lock and key
  19. activation energy
    needed to disrupt the electron configurations of the molecules its working with in order for chemical reaction to occur
  20. enzyme specificity
  21. denaturation
    • when an enzyme looses its shape
    • thru temp and pH
    • once its shape is lost then it can no longer bind to its substrate and can no longer perform its chemical reaction
  22. oxidation-reduction reactions
    aka redox
    • oxidation is the removal of one or more electrons from a substrate. protons (H+) are often removed with the electrons
    • reduction of a substrate refers to its gain of one or more electrons
    • each time a substance is oxidized, another is simultaneously reduced
  23. carbohydrate catabolism
    • most of a cell's energy is produced from the oxidation of carbohydrates
    • glucose is the most commonly used carbohydrate
    • the two major types of glucose catabolism are respiration, in which glucose is completely broken down and fermentation, in which it is partially broken down
  24. glycolysis
    • the most common pathway for the oxidation of glucose is glycolysis. pyruvic acid is the end-product
    • two ATP and two NADH molecules are produced from one glucose molecule

    • glycolhtic pathways produces a net gain of
    • 2 ATP!

    • first step in changing sugar (glucose) into energy
    • most organisms continue the breakdown of pyruvic acid using Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain to get the most ATP (energy) possible: called cellular respiration
  25. Krebs cycle
    • oxidation of acetyl CoA produces NADH and FADH
    • a net gain of 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH
  26. electron transport chain
    • a series of carrier molecules that are, in turn, oxidized and reduced as electrons are passed down the chain
    • energy released can be used to produce ATP by chemiosmosis

    a net total of 34 ATP!
  27. chemiosmosis
  28. aerobic cellular respiration
    the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is moleculer oxygen (O2)
  29. anaerobic cellular respiration
    • without oxygen
    • the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not O2. yields less energy than aerobic respiration bc only part of the Krebs cycles operation under anaerobic conditions
  30. fermenation
    • releases energy from oxidation of organic molecules
    • does not require oxygen (but can occur in oxygen)
    • does not use the Krebs cycle or ETC
    • no additional ATP are made
    • uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor
    • gasses (CO2 and/or H2) may be released

    • fermentation pathways are useful as tools in biochemical IDification
    • also used in industry: synthesis of certain organic compounds
  31. final electron acceptor
  32. photoautotroph
  33. photoheterotroph
  34. chemoautotroph
  35. chemoheterotroph
  36. amphibolic
  37. substrate
    • what is used in the beginning of the chemical reaction
    • (cocobutter and ingredients)

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