History Final Review

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  1. Louis XVI
  2. John Stuart Mill
    English philosopher and economist. Best known for his political works on Liberty. Argued the importance of individuality and utilitarianism.
  3. Napoleon
    ruled France from 1799 to 1815

    first authoritative ruler after the French Revolution

    first the committee of public safety was overthrown

    By 1917 there were so many people rising up against the directory (government at the time) that they started losing all their power. By 1799 Napoleon used his leadership to become a great political leader. People could relate to him b.c he was from a common class. The directory realises that it has no more power so Napoleon stages a Coup d'etat.

    Wants to create an empire similar to the Roman empire.
  4. James Watt
    Created the steam engine
  5. Adam Smith
    Rejected mercantilism and promoted laisses faire economics (hands off government) in his book, The Welth of Nations in 1776
  6. Karl Marx
    Wrote the Communist Manifesto. "Father of Communism" - set the guidelines on how it should be run.
  7. Robert Owen
  8. Klemens von Metternich
  9. Alexander I
  10. Congress of Vienna

    - who was there
    - group goals
    - individual goals
    • Countries Present:
    • - Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austria)
    • - Alexander I (Russia) - during height of Russian power
    • - Lord Catlereagh (England)
    • - Frederick William II (Prussia)
    • - Talleyrand (France)

    • Group Goals:
    • - Trying to dismantle Napoleons empire and reinstate the previous royals to their power.
    • - Stabilizing the countries and governments that were taken over and ultimately return stability to all of Europe.

    • Individual Goals
    • - Alexander I: wanted Russia to become the most powerful and dominant force in all of E. and Central Europe. Thought that Russia deserved to be the richest because they had defeated Napoleon
    • - Lord Catlereagh - wanted to make sure there was a balance of power in Europe (no more french military uprisings)
    • - Frederick William II - wanted German unification under Prussian leadership b/c all german states were separate from each other and couldn't cooperate.
    • - Talleyrand - wanted a lenient settlement for france (easy punishment)
    • - Metternich - wanted to restore the old order of Divine right monarchy (mandate of Heaven)
  11. Maurice Talleyrand
  12. Charles X
  13. Louis Philippe
  14. Giuseppe Mazzini
    Known as the heart of italian unification because he made sure that Italy united.

    Founded Young Italy whose one goal was Italian unification.

    • Obstacles:
    • - Hapsburgs
    • - Pope
  15. Louis Napoleon
  16. Count Camilo di Cavour
    Known as the brains of italian unification because he used diplomacy, secret maneuvers, and alliances to gain italian unification.

    He sees that there is a chance for unification but only under the rule of Piedmont and Sardinia.

    Allies Italy with France and England in the war against Austria (Hapsburgs) - Crimean War in the hope that once they had won the war, France would take its troops out of Italy

    Ultimately successful
  17. Guiseppe Garibaldi
    Known as the sword of italian unification because he carried out most of the battles and did most of the work to get Italy unified.

    Worked on overthrowing the french controlled southern parts of italy

    Moving his way to Rome
  18. Otto von Bismarck
    Was Chief Minister to William I of Prussia. Used a policy called real politik based on political realism to bring about German Unification under Prussian leadership.

    1866 - Bismarck maneuvered the Hapsburgs into war with Prussia. Austria was quickly defeated and the Hapsburgs were driven out of Germany.

    1867 - This defeat directly led to the creation of the North German Confederation

    Gets rid of Austria as a dominant force in Germany.
  19. Kaiser Wilhelm
    Under him Germany was unified

    King of Prussia

    Reigned from Jan 18th 1871 to March 9 1888

    Issued Austria a blank check in response to the assasination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand on June 28 1914 by the Black Hand, a Serbian Nationalist Group
  20. Imperialism
    policy of extending a countries power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

    • Reasons for imperialism:
    • 1. Search for raw materials aka lumber, coal, copper, and oil
    • 2. Missionary - people sent out in order to convert others to their religion.
    • 3. European countries are in direct competition with eachother.
    • 4. Search for international markets.
  21. Scramble for Africa
    During the time of Imperialism, when European countries went into Africa and carved it up into their territories, establishing spheres of influence.
  22. Triple Entente
    Made in order to check and balance the Triple Alliance. They would come together in times of war - put down any uprisings

    Original Members: France, England Russia
  23. Triple Alliance
    Germany, Austria and Italy. Created first.

    Began to gang up on the rest of Europe. Bc of the Unification of Germany the balance of power in Europe was upset.
  24. Nationalism
    extreme love for ones country
  25. Sides of WWI
    • Allied Powers - England, Russia, and France
    • *Italy joins in 1915, and the US joins in 1917

    Central Powers - Germany, Austro-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria
  26. White Man's Burden
    Belief that the western white european man has a responsiblity to civilize every area that was not as developed as their own country.
  27. Coup d'etat
    The people overthrew the French government
  28. Directory
    bicameral legislature and an exexcutive board which was the five most powerful people in government
  29. Napoleonic Code
    The french civil code est. in 1804

    • - forbade priveleges based on birth
    • - allowed freedom of religion
    • - allowed government jobs to go to the most qualified candidate
  30. Bastille
    Armory in the center of Paris that was a symbol of the old regime. Also a prison for enemies of the old regime.

    It was torn down brick by brick signifiying the tearing apart of the old regime when they stormed the bastille and overthrew Louis XVI
  31. Estates - French Revolution
    • First Estate - Clergy
    • Second Estate - Nobility
    • Third Estate - 98% of the population - peasants, cityworkers, middle class
  32. The Old Regime
    French Political and social system before 1789. No social mobility, distinct social heirarchy, ruled by nobles and royalty
  33. Tennis Court Oath
    The members of the Third Estate were locked out of the National Convention. So angrily they went to a near by tennis court to protect them from the rain and vowed not to stop until they had created a new constitution - The Tennis Court Oath
  34. Reign of Terror
    During the reign of Robbespierre before Napoleon took power when people were tried and killed for anything that was considered unpatriotic or against the revolution
  35. Balance of Power
    The thought that all the countries in Europe should be relatively equal so that there could never be another uprising like that of Napoleon's
  36. Concert of Europe
    created during the Congress of Vienna

    like a retro UN - main goal is to create a balance of power but didnt work because Germany unified and then they were the most powerful.
  37. Eastern Front
    During WWI - along the border of Russia and Germany, fighting between the two

    More of a mobile war.
  38. Western Front
    Along France and Germany - considered trench warfare. Terrible front- no progress made on either side, many people killed. Horrible conditions
  39. Lusitania
    A US passenger ship carrying mostly US and British passengers. Shot down by a German U boat because the Germans had started using unrestricted U-Boat warfare.

    This along with the Zimmerman telegram were a major factor in the US joining WWI
  40. The Steamengine
    Created by James Watt
  41. Bolsheviks
    Leading family in Russia during WWI. They had to pull out of the war because of the Bolshevik revolution
  42. Mercantilism
    The economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances
  43. Laissez faire
    free trade, government doesn't get involved in economy. Translates to let the people do as they choose.
  44. Capitalism
    economic system where everyone is working for their own personal gain. Based on the idea that this model stimulates the economy because each person has an individual incentive to work his hardest.
  45. Hundred Days
    After Napoleon was exiled, he escaped, came back and marched on france. He ruled france for 100 days, until he was rebanished, where he died.
Card Set
History Final Review
History - Key people, events, terms, and titles
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