History Final Review
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John Stuart Mill
English philosopher and economist. Best known for his political works on Liberty. Argued the importance of individuality and utilitarianism.
ruled France from 1799 to 1815
first authoritative ruler after the French Revolution
first the committee of public safety was overthrown
By 1917 there were so many people rising up against the directory (government at the time) that they started losing all their power. By 1799 Napoleon used his leadership to become a great political leader. People could relate to him b.c he was from a common class. The directory realises that it has no more power so Napoleon stages a Coup d'etat.
Wants to create an empire similar to the Roman empire.
Created the steam engine
Rejected mercantilism and promoted laisses faire economics (hands off government) in his book, The Welth of Nations in 1776
Wrote the Communist Manifesto. "Father of Communism" - set the guidelines on how it should be run.
Congress of Vienna
- who was there
- group goals
- individual goals
- Countries Present:
- - Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austria)
- - Alexander I (Russia) - during height of Russian power
- - Lord Catlereagh (England)
- - Frederick William II (Prussia)
- - Talleyrand (France)
- Group Goals:
- - Trying to dismantle Napoleons empire and reinstate the previous royals to their power.
- - Stabilizing the countries and governments that were taken over and ultimately return stability to all of Europe.
- Individual Goals
- - Alexander I: wanted Russia to become the most powerful and dominant force in all of E. and Central Europe. Thought that Russia deserved to be the richest because they had defeated Napoleon
- - Lord Catlereagh - wanted to make sure there was a balance of power in Europe (no more french military uprisings)
- - Frederick William II - wanted German unification under Prussian leadership b/c all german states were separate from each other and couldn't cooperate.
- - Talleyrand - wanted a lenient settlement for france (easy punishment)
- - Metternich - wanted to restore the old order of Divine right monarchy (mandate of Heaven)
Known as the heart of italian unification because he made sure that Italy united.
Founded Young Italy whose one goal was Italian unification.
- - Hapsburgs
- - Pope
Count Camilo di Cavour
Known as the brains of italian unification because he used diplomacy, secret maneuvers, and alliances to gain italian unification.
He sees that there is a chance for unification but only under the rule of Piedmont and Sardinia.
Allies Italy with France and England in the war against Austria (Hapsburgs) - Crimean War in the hope that once they had won the war, France would take its troops out of Italy
Known as the sword of italian unification because he carried out most of the battles and did most of the work to get Italy unified.
Worked on overthrowing the french controlled southern parts of italy
Moving his way to Rome
Otto von Bismarck
Was Chief Minister to William I of Prussia. Used a policy called real politik based on political realism to bring about German Unification under Prussian leadership.
1866 - Bismarck maneuvered the Hapsburgs into war with Prussia. Austria was quickly defeated and the Hapsburgs were driven out of Germany.
1867 - This defeat directly led to the creation of the North German Confederation
Gets rid of Austria as a dominant force in Germany.
Under him Germany was unified
King of Prussia
Reigned from Jan 18th 1871 to March 9 1888
Issued Austria a blank check in response to the assasination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand on June 28 1914 by the Black Hand, a Serbian Nationalist Group
policy of extending a countries power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
- Reasons for imperialism:
- 1. Search for raw materials aka lumber, coal, copper, and oil
- 2. Missionary - people sent out in order to convert others to their religion.
- 3. European countries are in direct competition with eachother.
- 4. Search for international markets.
Scramble for Africa
During the time of Imperialism, when European countries went into Africa and carved it up into their territories, establishing spheres of influence.
Made in order to check and balance the Triple Alliance. They would come together in times of war - put down any uprisings
Original Members: France, England Russia
Germany, Austria and Italy. Created first.
Began to gang up on the rest of Europe. Bc of the Unification of Germany the balance of power in Europe was upset.
extreme love for ones country
Sides of WWI
- Allied Powers - England, Russia, and France
- *Italy joins in 1915, and the US joins in 1917
Central Powers - Germany, Austro-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria
White Man's Burden
Belief that the western white european man has a responsiblity to civilize every area that was not as developed as their own country.
The people overthrew the French government
bicameral legislature and an exexcutive board which was the five most powerful people in government
The french civil code est. in 1804
- - forbade priveleges based on birth
- - allowed freedom of religion
- - allowed government jobs to go to the most qualified candidate
Armory in the center of Paris that was a symbol of the old regime. Also a prison for enemies of the old regime.
It was torn down brick by brick signifiying the tearing apart of the old regime when they stormed the bastille and overthrew Louis XVI
Estates - French Revolution
- First Estate - Clergy
- Second Estate - Nobility
- Third Estate - 98% of the population - peasants, cityworkers, middle class
The Old Regime
French Political and social system before 1789. No social mobility, distinct social heirarchy, ruled by nobles and royalty
Tennis Court Oath
The members of the Third Estate were locked out of the National Convention. So angrily they went to a near by tennis court to protect them from the rain and vowed not to stop until they had created a new constitution - The Tennis Court Oath
Reign of Terror
During the reign of Robbespierre before Napoleon took power when people were tried and killed for anything that was considered unpatriotic or against the revolution
Balance of Power
The thought that all the countries in Europe should be relatively equal so that there could never be another uprising like that of Napoleon's
Concert of Europe
created during the Congress of Vienna
like a retro UN - main goal is to create a balance of power but didnt work because Germany unified and then they were the most powerful.
During WWI - along the border of Russia and Germany, fighting between the two
More of a mobile war.
Along France and Germany - considered trench warfare. Terrible front- no progress made on either side, many people killed. Horrible conditions
A US passenger ship carrying mostly US and British passengers. Shot down by a German U boat because the Germans had started using unrestricted U-Boat warfare.
This along with the Zimmerman telegram were a major factor in the US joining WWI
Created by James Watt
Leading family in Russia during WWI. They had to pull out of the war because of the Bolshevik revolution
The economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances
free trade, government doesn't get involved in economy. Translates to let the people do as they choose.
economic system where everyone is working for their own personal gain. Based on the idea that this model stimulates the economy because each person has an individual incentive to work his hardest.
After Napoleon was exiled, he escaped, came back and marched on france. He ruled france for 100 days, until he was rebanished, where he died.
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