BIEB 176

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Author:
auggie
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87378
Filename:
BIEB 176
Updated:
2011-05-25 03:44:26
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Midterm
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Definitions for Conservation of Biology
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  1. In situ(in nature) conservation
    • - is on-site conservation or the conservation of genetic
    • resources in natural populations of plant or animal species.
    • Conservation techniques-in nature (in situ= on site); parks,
    • reserves, and beyond.
  2. Ex situ (Out of nature) conservation
    • -(ex
    • situ= off “site”): zoos
  3. Extinction vortex
    • Small population-->As you go down this vortex,
    • individuals are forced to breed with one another because there is no
    • choice. Variability is decreased. Genetic variability is correlated with
    • fitness in some cases. Skin
    • grafted on cheetahs are not rejected due to Lack of genetic variation. Genetic variation in population may
    • contribute and to reduced fitness and extinction. For example, Martha’s vineyard heath Hen—extinction
    • due to inbreedingàBreeding
    • depression. Puma Concolor---Florida
    • pantheràInbreeding
  4. UN CBD –
    United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity was established in 1992.

    • Important Elements of
    • the CBD:

    Recognized:

    -Genetic diversity

    • -Importance of
    • biodiversity to sustaining all life

    • -Sustainable
    • developed linked to biodiversity

    • -Dependence of local
    • communities on biodiversity

    • -Importance of local
    • knowledge and ownership

    • -Equity-sharing of
    • biological resources

    -Genetic property rights

    Advocated:

    National strategic plans for biodiversity

    • Integrating biodiversity into national
    • policies and plans

    International collaboration

    Set up:

    Scientific advisory bodies

    • Funding
    • for poorer states

    • • The
    • Global Environmental Facility
  5. CITES
    • The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Speciesof Wild Fauna and Flora. To ensure that
    • international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten
    • their survival.
  6. Ecotourism-
    • “Responsible travel to natural areas that helps
    • conserve biodiversity and benefits local communities”
  7. "Fishing down the food web"
    • Fishing larger fish to
    • the point of extinction and continuing fishing to the next large fish.
  8. Sticky water
    • sediment
    • and pollution that stays along the shore line, moves back and forth with
    • the tide. Surf collects materials from drainage.
  9. Kelp forests/ Urchin barrens
    • Sea Urchin barrens are common in kelps
    • everywhereà Urchins eat up the kelp forests. This happens when predators of urchins are
    • depleted (ex. Sea otters) we have an increase of population of urchin which eats
    • away the base of kelp.
  10. Ghost fishing
    • - Ghost nets are fishing nets that have been left or lost in
    • the ocean by fishermen. These nets, often nearly invisible in the dim light,
    • can be left tangled on a rocky reef or drifting in the open sea. They can
    • entangle fish, dolphins, sea turtles, sharks, dugongs, crocodiles, seabirds, crabs,
    • and other creatures that continue to catch marine animals.
  11. Aquaculture
    • Aqua-farmingàcontributed with commercial
    • fishing. Aqua culture is not a solution:
    • Fish farming destroys habitat such as coral reefs.
  12. restoration of species-
    • Re-introduction=translocation and re-introduction:
    • Reintroduction(from captive to wild), Translocation (from wild to wild),
    • Introduction (outside from historical range—exotic animal introduce to a
    • non-native site), Rehabiliation (make captive wild animals ready for the wild).
    • The success rate is very low in restoration of species.
  13. Reintroduction
    animal from captive to wild
  14. Translocation
    From wild to wild
  15. Introduction
    Outside historical range (exotic animal being introduced into not native land)
  16. Rehabilitation
    preparing captive animals ready for wild
  17. Golden lion tamarins
    • 2% habitat remains, In
    • 1983 there were 15 Golden lion Tamarins in Brazil. In 1984, 14 golden lion tamarins were hard
    • released and by 1985 11 had died. In
    • 1990 they were re-introduced to the wild but this time in a soft release
    • process. There have been 153 released
    • from 1984 onward (problem is low survival rate). 341 births since 2000, there are private
    • ranches of GLT, a Flagship species (is a species chosen to represent an environmental
    • cause, such as an ecosystem in need of conservation.
  18. Arabian oryx
    • In 1972 extinct in wild
    • captive herd, and 1980 the oryx project. First 2 herds: 1982 released into
    • wild, 1984 second release. 1987 there were 8 dead out of 18, 29 births but
    • mortality was the same as captive. In 1989, 62 wild oryx (44 Omani born), 1994 there
    • were 175 wild oryx and continued to grow. In 2008, 100 captive born oryx
    • released into its historical range (suitiable habitat). Arabian oryx reintroduced into Abu Dhabi
    • after 40 years absence. The Oryx were
    • soft released; temporary shelter, feeding stations…while they learned how to
    • survive.
  19. Buffalo Commons
    • Short grass commons;
    • soil erosion and overgrazing, unsustainable agriculture and ranching -->dust bowl. To
    • preserve the Great Plains the land should be returned to its original pre-white
    • state---it should be deprivatized
  20. Restoration ecology
    - Restore original ecosystem or community with self-sustaining processes
  21. Re-wilding America
    • reinstate past selection
    • pressures such as Mega-fauna (ex. Lions, Mammoths, North American Rhino by
    • using ecological surrogates. Immediately
    • begin Pleistocene re-wilding using private ranches in the US (introduction). And
    • the final stage would be “ecological history parks” with perimeter fencing in
    • the economic depressed areas of the great plains.
  22. Non-point-source pollution
    • From entire coast of
    • waste and agricultural runoff running down through a main drain from different
    • directions to a specific point, a non-point-source of pollution.
  23. Shifting baselines
    judge everything on experience, the decline in fish stocks have declined by half since half a person’s lifetime, however, depletion could have been a 10 fold. Have to reference further back and not based on a person’s lifetime.
  24. Regional HCP
    Regional Habitat Conservation Plan wants to preserve several species, needs a bigger plan, not on a local level but a regional level. Allow development projects to proceed on a regional scale: comply with the ESA (Sec. 10) and allow take of endangered species.
  25. HCP
    A specific project and its impact. Development is ineviatable, there will be development, Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) makes sure development is done in little damage as possible. No surprises clauseà if you find an endangered species after development has been permitted you can’t stop development.
  26. Spotted Owl
    used a single species to conserve an entire larger area; showing how the ESA can be used. Used to stop a Billion dollar damn in Maine and used the spotted owls as an incentive as losing their habitat in the process of building the damn.
  27. Pak Mun Dam
    Pak Mun Dam reservoir to develop electricity in Thailand. A hotspot for largest diversity of freshwater fish and invertebrate species. A classic example of a poorly designed, environmentally flawed project with significant societal costs. The extent of the damage to biodiversity remains unknown.
  28. Lacey Act (1900)
    • Prohibited interstate transport of animals
    • protected everywhere.
  29. “take” as a provision of ESA
    action of or attempt to hunt, harm, harass, pursue, shoot, wound, capture, kill, trap, or collect a species.
  30. Milankovitch Cycles
    Seasonal variation, natural cyclesà occurs every few centuries, Due to that the world spins on an off axis. An expected climate change. Some seasonal variation is natural.
  31. Keeling Curve
    year to year climate change.
  32. Zoos as arks
    using zoos as a conservation method for wild species and perhaps later introducing the species into the wild
  33. Frozen zoos
    In theory genetic material frozen for future use for breeding to restore a species
  34. Fortress parks-
    a concept that everything outside the fortress park is really bad, which leads to exclusion of people, using Amboseli as an example; the exclusion of the Maasai.
  35. Kyoto Protocol
    countries, or UN agreeing to meet certain standards to meet change on climate (did not actually work out) an attempt to setting a standard in CO2 emission.
  36. non-invasive genotyping
    geneticinformation without blood test, example, elephant dung.
  37. restoration of species
    • Re-introduction=translocation and re-introduction:
    • Reintroduction(from captive to wild), Translocation (from wild to wild),
    • Introduction (outside from historical range—exotic animal introduce to a
    • non-native site), Rehabiliation (make captive wild animals ready for the wild).
    • The success rate is very low in restoration of species.
  38. restoration ecology
    original ecosystem or community with self-sustaining processes
  39. environmental/economic effects of dams:
    Land loss, health, plant and animal life, fish and aquatic life, water weeds, water quality, erosion, Anaerobic decomposition, downstream hydrology, property rights, riparian rights, Dam safety. Example the Pak mun Dam, Mun River, in Thailand
  40. certified sustainable goods and services:
    A set of certificationon a product that lets the consumer know the product was grown and processed in a sustainable manner. - As a consumer you have the option of knowing what you’re buying Ex: free trade, certified organic, grown and processed sustainably.
  41. African cheetahs
    Cheetahs have gone through a genetic bottle neck, low genetic variation. This shows how unpleasant surprises of low genetic variation.
  42. Prairie ecosystem
    nutrients are in soilà good for farming but then you have erosion of soil. How were prairies created? People, fire management, and buffalo. With buffalo close to extinction, and humans not fire managing the prairie, industrialization, people living in cities, towns, that at one time was prairie the prairie ecosystem is hard to restore.
  43. Guanacaste National Park, Costa Rica
    • Forest Restoration inCosta Rica. Once there was 50% of tropics now there are 2% left. We have a
    • natural process that is speeded up for restoration through active management action plans using cattle and horses as mimics and proxies for forest reinvasion, fire management, and stopping hunting altogether. We have the planting of native and exotic
    • trees that are introduced and re-introduced to follow a natural ecological restoration (copy habitat). We have
    • 110,000 ha of land and 60,000 have been converted (but we need 200-500 years to restore). In addition, we have the teaching of people on Bio-culture; conservation biology principles and practices. An example of Professor Western’s lecture on parks beyond parks.
  44. Buffalo Commons
    Short grass commons a proposal of taking 10 states and creating a Great Plains National park. To preserve the Great Plains the land should be returned to its original pre-white state---it should be deprivatized. There has been soil erosion and overgrazing and there is unsustainable agriculture and ranching; an example the dust bowl.
  45. Re-wilding America
    • reinstate past selection pressures such as Mega-fauna (ex. Lions, Mammoths, North American Rhino by using ecological surrogates/proxies. To immediately begin Pleistocene re-wilding using private ranches in the US for introduction. And the final stage would be “ecological history parks” with perimeter fencing
    • in the economic depressed areas of the Great Plains.
  46. UNBP
    Uaso Ngiro Baboon Project was Professors Strum’s project in relocating Baboons in 1984. Project also introduced community based conservation (CBS)-schools, employment, awareness—Ecotourism walks with cattle and baboon touring the landscape, beadwork network, cricket, tree planting (natural resource management), science, and Polei painting club.
  47. Relative costs of restoration
    It is expensive$$$$!!!!!



    #1). Translocation (Wild to Wild) is the best solution economically and in survival rate in translocating animals = Serengeti NP 15,000 Km2 =$500,000/yr $.01 for large mammal/yr (all other spp included; William Conway)

    • – Translocation
    • • Baboon = $500/animal with follow up
    • • Rhesus monkey = $150/animal no
    • follow up

    • – Reintroduction
    • • $100,000 to $1,000,000 per surviving animal
    • • Reintro wild dogs in S. Africa costs 20x habitat protection

    • – Captive
    • • $1000/yr/animal (primates in 1990’s)
    • • ΣLifetime ≥ $40,000/individual animal (n= >500)
    • • × 200 spp = !!!! impossible
    • – (Habitat Conservation Plans (US) = $325,000 per project + future costs)
  48. CBC
    - Community based conservation increase the benefit in positive impact on schools, employment, and awareness on conservation/ecotourism as well.
  49. Schistosomiasis
    - A tiny parasitic worm that lives in fresh water snails. The worm causes symptoms of anemia and malnutrient and an enlarged abdomen in humans.
  50. EIA and EA
    Environmental International Approach takes the approach from a national approach to an international approach. Environmental Assessment (EA) gives a report on significant public concerns.
  51. EGAT
    • Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand;
    • Involves Engineers and medical team and how local scientist were muffled by government officials. EGAT ignored and manipulated all potential ecological harm in order to build the Pak Mun Dam. However, Professor Woodruff was used as the voice against building a damn and delayed the vote to build the dam, ridiculed Thai/EGAT procedures, strengthened Thai’s NGOs, assisted displaced people etc.
  52. World Bank
    Biodiversity was something they did not care about in the 1980s in the case of the Pak Mun dam. WB cared only for their profit return. WB purpose is to assure development options are environmentally sound and sustainable! However, not the case in the Pak Mun Dam.
  53. Trans-boundary impact assessments
    - Example, Pak Man Dam How it is going to affect at a local level and affect neighboring countries that consider economic, social, cultural, political, and environmental impact.
  54. Hill tribes
    Hill forests have recently been designated as nation forest reserves and national parks by the central government which does not recognize the citizenship or land rights of the hilltribes. Should hilltribes be forcibly relocated? Are they practicing sustainable agriculture? Many of the Hill tribes are being blamed for deforestation, erosion, poor downstream water quality and the loss of watershed ecological services.
  55. Bonobos
    Bonobos- Chimps closes relatives to humans. Bonobo’s have an incredible variability in comparison to humans.
  56. bushmeat crisis
    -killing of chimps and selling it as food. Comes with value? The Crisis of bushmeat comes with a ton of demand on chimp meat and a demand on conservation.
  57. Captive breeding
    self sustaining populations in captivity.
  58. Kyoto Protocol
    countries, or UN agreeing to meet certain standards to meet change on climate (did not actually work out) an attempt to setting a standard in CO2 emission.
  59. Ecosystem management
    Making What is appropriate management? Sure ecosystem is viable, working, and regulations.
  60. Fortress parks
    a concept that everything outside the fortress park is really bad, which leads to exclusion of people, using Amboseli as an example; the exclusion of the Maasai.
  61. Zoos as arks
    using zoos as a conservation method for wild species and perhaps later introducing the species into the wild.
  62. Frozen zoos
    theory genetic material frozen for future use for breeding to restore a species.
  63. Keeling Curve
    year to year climate change.
  64. Milankovitch Cycles
    Seasonal variation, natural cycles -->occurs every few centuries, Due to that the world spins on an off axis. An expected climatechange. Some seasonal variation is natural.
  65. “take” as a provision of ESA-
    action of or attempt to hunt, harm, harass, pursue, shoot, wound, capture, kill, trap, or collect a species.
  66. Lacey Act (1900)-
    Prohibited interstate transport of animals protected everywhere.

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