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EMOTIONS EMERGE AT THIS AGE...
- Birth - crying; contentment
- 6 weeks - social smile
- 3 months - laughter; curiosity
- 4 months - full, responsive smiles
- 4-8 months - anger
- 9-14 months - fear of social events (separation from mom)
- 12 months - fear of unexpected sights/sounds
- 18 months - self-awareness; pride, shame, embarrassment
A smile evoked by a human face, normally evident in infants about six weeks after birth.
An infant's expression of concern - a quiet stare, clinging to a familiar person, or sadness -- when a stranger appears.
An infant's distress when a familiar caregiver leaves; most obvious between 9 and 14 months.
A person's realization that he or she is a distinct individual, with body, mind, and actions that are separate from those of other people.
THEORIES ABOUT INFANT PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT:
Psychoanalytic Theory - Connects biosocial and psychosocial development, emphasizing the need for responsive maternal care. Both theorists, Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. Freud wrote about oral stage and anal stage. Erikson defined them as trust versus mistrust and autonomy versus shame and doubt.
TRUST VERSUS MISTRUST
- Erikson's first psychosocial crisis. Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention, etc.) are met.
- Like Freud, Erikson believed that problems arising in early infancy could last a lifetime, creating an adult who is suspicious and pessimistic (mistrusting) or who is easily shamed (insufficient autonomy).
AUTONOMY VERSUS SHAME AND DOUBT
Erikson's second crisis of psychosocial development. Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their own actions and bodies.
SOCIAL LEARNING (Behaviorism)
- Learning by observing others.
- Both psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories emphasize parents.
- Freud thought that the mother was the young child's first and most enduring love object.
- Behaviorists stress the power of a mother over her children.
THEORIES ABOUT INFANT PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
- Cognitive Theory -- Holds that thoughts and values determine a person's perspective.
- Early experiences are important because beliefs, perceptions, and memories make them so, not because they are buried in the unconscious (psychoanalytic theory) or burned into the brain's patterns (behaviorism).
- A child's interpretations of early experiences is crucial, not necessarily the experiences themselves.
WORKING MODEL (Cognitive Theory)
In cognitive theory, a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences. For example, a person might assume that other people are trustworthy, and be surprised when this model of human behavior seems in error.
THEORIES ABOUT INFANT PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
- Epigenetic Theory -- Holds that every human characteristic is strongly influenced by each person's unique genotype.
- A child might be happy or anxious not because of early experiences (the three grand theories), but because of inborn predispositions...DNA remains the same from conception on, no mater how emotions are blocked (psychoanalytic theory), reinforced (behaviorism), or interpreted (cognitive theory).
- Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-control. Temperament is epigenetic, originating in genes but affected by child-rearing practices.
- Personality traits (honesty and humility) are considered to be primarily learned, whereas temperamental traits (shyness and aggression) are considered to be primarily genetic.
NEW YORK LONGITUDINAL STUDY (NYLS)
- By three months, infants manifest 9 temperamental traits that can be clustered into the three categories, with a fourth of "hard to classify."
- Slow to Warm Up
Noisy, moving robot that moves close -- Some laugh
and are classified easy.
and are difficult.
Some are quiet
and are slow to warm up.
GOODNESS TO FIT
A similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his/her social context, including family, school, and community.
ETHNOTHEORY (Sociocultural Theory re: infant psychosocial development)
A theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture and that becomes apparent through analysis and comparison of those practices, although it is not usually apparent to the people within the culture. (ancestors reincarnated in younger generations, leading to those culture to favor indulging children, with no harsh punishments)
Parenting practices that involve close physical contact with the child's entire body, such as cradling and swinging.
Parenting practices that focus on the intellect more than the body, such as talking with the baby and playing with an object.
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS
All theories of development agree that healthy human development depends on social connections. (Infants are happier and healthier when others (especially their mothers) are nearby.
- A coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant, an exchange in which they respond to each other with split-second timing.
- Meshing of a finely tuned machine, an emotional attunement of an improvised musical duet.
- Via synchrony, infants learn to read other emotions and to develop the skills of social interaction, such as taking turns and paying attention.
- Adults do not merely echo infant emotions; they try to make them more positive.
- Many research studies lead to the same conclusion: A parent's responsiveness to an infant aids development, measured not only psychsocially but also biologically (heart rate, weight gain, and brain maturation).
An experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infant.
According to Ainsworth, an affectional tie that an infant forms with the caregiver - a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time.
Infant approaching and following their caregivers, showing attachment.
- Touching, snuggling, and holding.
- A securely attached toddler is curious and eager to explore but maintains contact by looking back at the caregiver.
- Over humanity's evolution, these behaviors contributed to the survival of the species. Attachment keeps infants near their caregivers and keeps caregivers vigilant.
- Four types: A through D
- Infants with secure attachment (B) feel comfortable and confident. The caregiver becomes a bse for exploration, giving the child the assurance to venture forth.
INFANT ATTACHMENT - A
- Insecure-avoidant -- the child plays happily. Mother leaves, child continues playing. Mother returns, child ignores her.
- Affects 10-20 percents.
INFANT ATTACHMENT - B
- Secure -- child plays happily. Mother leaves, child pauses, is not as happy. Mother returns, Child welcomes her, returns to play.
- Affects 50-70 percent.
INFANT ATTACHMENT - C
- Insecure-resistant/ambivalent -- child clings, is preoccupied with mother. Mother leaves, child is unhappy, may stop playing. Mother returns, child is angry, may cry, hit mother, cling.
- Affects 10-20 percent.
INFANT ATTACHMENT - D
- Disorganized - child is cautious. Mother leaves, child may stare or yell, looks scared, confused. Mother returns, child acts oddly, may freeze, scream, hit self, throw things.
- Affects 5-10 percent.
A pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return.
A pattern of attachment in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when an infant is very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion.
A type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return.
- A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants' reactions to stress.
- Developed by Ainsworth (1973).
Seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else's expressions and reactions. That other person becomes a social reference.
FAMILY DAY CARE
Child care that occurs in another caregiver's home. Usually the caregiver is paid at a lower rate than in center care, and usually one person cares for several children of various ages.
CENTER DAY CARE
- Most developmentalists find that infants are not likely to be harmed by - and, in fact, can benefit from - professional day care.
- Center day care is in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid providers care for many children. Usually the children are grouped by age, the day care center is licensed, and providers are trained and certified in child development.