Absolutism Review Sheet

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Absolutism Review Sheet
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  1. Philip II
    Inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies. He had an empire that circled the globe and incredible wealth. He believed it was his duty to defend Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and Protestants of Europe. He launched the Spanish Armada in an attempt to punish Protestant England and its queen. His fleet was defeated, which weakened Spain.
  2. Charles V
    The Hapsburg king and a devout Catholic. He unwillingly agreed to the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed German princes to choose the religion for their territory. The next year, he divided his immense empire and retired. His brother inherited half of his empire and his son the other half.
  3. Elizabeth I
    A devout Protestant, who was determined to return her kingdom to Protestantism. She set up the Church of England, or Anglican Church, with herself as its head. This was a church that moderate Catholics and moderate Protestants might both accept.
  4. Isabella and Ferdinand
    Used the Inquisition to investigate suspected heretics, or nonbelievers in Christianity.
  5. El Greco
    An artist who chose brilliant, sometimes clashing colors, distorted the human figure, and expressed emotion symbolically in his paintings. His techniques showed the deep Catholic faith of Spain.
  6. Don Quixote
    A book that is often called the birth of the modern European novel. About a person who longed for the romantic past because he is frustrated with his materialistic world.
  7. Velazquez
    His paintings reflected the pride of the Spanish monarchy. He is known for his portraits of the royal family and scenes of court life. He used rich colors.
  8. Rembrandt
    The greatest Dutch artist of the period. He painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants, and produced group portraits. He used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus.
  9. Vermeer
    He chose domestic, indoor settings for his portraits. He often painted women doing family activities, such as pouring milk or reading a letter.
  10. Cardinal Richelieu
    Appointed as minister to Louis XIII, who was a weak king. Richelieu made up for all of Louis’s weaknesses. He became, in effect, the ruler of France. He took steps to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy. He involved France in the Thirty Years’ War.
  11. Louis XIII
    A weak king, appointed a strong minister, Cardinal Richelieu, who became, in effect, the ruler of France.
  12. Huguenots
    French Protestants that faced many conflicts with the Catholics. Under Henry IV, Huguenots lived in peace in France. Richelieu, however, turned agaisnt Huguenots.
  13. Louis XIV
    Most powerful ruler in French history and strongest king of his time. He weakened the power of the nobles and increased the power of the government agents who collected taxes and administered justice. He devoted himself to helping France attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance. He canceled the Edict of Nantes, which protected the religious freedom of Huguenots, which, in turn, robbed France of many skilled workers. Great supporter of the arts. Made France the most powerful country in Europe.
  14. Mazarin
    He was the true ruler of France and was Richelieu’s successor. His greatest triumph came with the ending of the Thirty Years’ War. He was hated because he increase taxes and strengthened the central government. Nobles led riots during his reign.
  15. Colbert
    Louis XIII’s minister of finance. He helped France attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance. He wanted to make France self-sufficient, so he tried to expand manufacturing in France.
  16. Maria Theresa
    The heir to all Hapsburg territories. She was a woman, but she was a very good leader. Her main enemy was Prussia.
  17. Fredrick the Great
    King of Prussia. Followed his father’s military policies when he came to power, but also softened some of his father’s laws. He encouraged religious toleration and legal reform. He believed that a ruler should be like a father to his people. Got Silesia from Austria, and led Prussia to becoming a major European power.
  18. Hapsburgs
    One of the two German-speaking families that became absolute rulers. They were the Hapsburgs of Austria and took several steps to become absolute monarchs. Inside the borders lived a diverse assortment of people.
  19. Peter the Great
    Became the sole ruler of Russia. Known as Peter the Great because he was one of Russia’s greatest reformers. He also continued to increase the czar’s power. He went on a long visit to western Europe. One of his goals was to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques. Inspired by this trip, he had a goal of westernization, of using western Europe as a model for change. He created reforms to westernize Russia in order to compete with Europe on both military and commercial terms. He secured a new port for Russia.
  20. Romanovs
    There was a period in Russia of turmoil as several imposters tried to claim the throne. Finally, representatives from Russian cities met to choose the next czar. Their choice was Michael Romanov, which began the Romanov dynasty.
  21. Charles I
    Became king of England. He was always in need of money, partly because he was constantly at war with Spain and France. To get money, he imposed all kinds of fines on the English people. When he called Parliament back, they passed laws to limit royal power. Charles was furious and tried to arrest Parliament’s leaders, but they escaped. Charles fled and raised an army in the north of England. This started a civil war. The Puritans won and Charles was brought to trial for treason against Parliament. He became the first monarch to face a public trial and execution.
  22. Oliver Cromwell
    Became General of the Puritans and held the king, Charles, prisoner. Charles was put to trial and faced execution. Cromwell then held the reins of power. He abolished the monarchy and established a commonwealth, a republican form of government. He made a constitution, which he eventually tore up and became a military dictator. He was a strict Puritan and made laws that promoted Puritan morality. He favored religious toleration for all Christians except Catholics, allowing Jews to return.
  23. Catherine the Great
    A Russian ruler. She was a well-educated empress and ruled with absolute authority, but also sought to reform Russia. She eventually put in place limited reforms, but did little to improve the life of the Russia peasants. Catherine had favored an end to serfdom; however, after a massive uprising of serfs, she was convinced that she needed the nobles’ support to keep her throne. Therefore, she gave the nobles absolute power over the serfs. As a result, Russian serfs lost their last traces of freedom.
  24. Absolute Monarch
    Kings or queens who hold all the power within their states’ boundaries. Their goal was to control every aspect of society.
  25. Divine right
    The idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God’s representative on Earth. An absolute monarch answered only to God, not to his or her subjects.
  26. Armada
    A Spanish Armada was launched by Catholic Philip in an attempt to punish Protestant England and its queen, Elizabeth I. However, his fleet was defeated seriously weakening Spain.
  27. Edict of Nantes
    A declaration of religious toleration toward Huguenots in France.
  28. Sun King
    Louis XIV called himself the Sun King because he thought all power revolved around him as everything revolved around the sun.
  29. Intendants
    Government agents who collected taxes and administered justice.
  30. War of Spanish Succession
    The struggle that started to prevent the union of the French and Spanish thrones.
  31. Peace of Utrecht
    It was created because of the War of Spanish Succession. It stated that Louis’s grandson was allowed to remain king of Spain as long as the thrones of France and Spain were not united.
  32. Thirty Years War
    A conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families.
  33. Peace of Westphalia
    Ended the Thirty Years’ War. It weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria.
  34. War of Austrian Succession
    Prussia sent their army to occupy Silesia (an Austrian land) beginning the War of the Austrian Succession. Maria Theresa (queen of Austria) stopped Prussia’s aggression, but lost Silesia in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. With the acquisition of Silesia, Prussia became a major European power.
  35. Seven Years’ War
    Austria and Prussia switched allies. Frederick attacked Saxony, an Austrian ally. Soon every great European power was involved in the war. The war did not change the territorial situation in Europe. The British emerged as the real victors in the Seven Years’ War.
  36. Boyars
    Russia’s landowning nobles, who struggled for power.
  37. Westernization
    Peter went to the West, and resolved that Russia would compete with Europe on both military and commercial terms. His goal was of using western Europe as a model for change (westernization). Peter saw it as a way to make Russia stronger.
  38. English Civil War
    At first neither side could gain a lasting advantage. However, the Puritans found a general who could win, Oliver Cromwell. The Puritans then began defeating the Cavaliers (supporters of Charles) and the Puritans began winning. They captured and held King Charles prisoner. It resulted in Charles facing a public trial and execution and Cromwell abolishing the monarchy and establishing a commonwealth, a republican form of government, that he would take control of.
  39. Restoration
    The period of Charles II reigning because he restored the monarchy. During which habeas corpus was passed.
  40. Habeas Corpus
    An important guarantee of freedom passed by Parliament during Charles II’s reign. This law gave every prisoner the right to obtain a document ordering that the prisoner be brought before a judge to specify the charges against the prisoner. Because of the Habeas Corpus Act, a monarch could not put someone in jail simply for opposing the ruler. Also, prisoners could not be held indefinitely without trials.
  41. Glorious Revolution
    The bloodless overthrow of King James II.
  42. Constitutional monarchy
    Where laws limited the ruler’s power.
  43. Cabinet
    A group of government officials who became the link between the monarch and the majority party in Parliament. They were there to act if the Parliament and monarch disagreed.
  44. Philip II’s reign of Spain
    Philip was deeply religious. When he assumed the throne, Europe was experiencing religious wars caused by the Reformation. Philip believed it was his duty to defend Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and the Protestants of Europe. When the pope call on all Catholic princes to take up arms against the mounting power of the Ottoman Empire, Philip responded like a true crusader. Philip launched the Spanish Armada in an attempt to punish Protestant England and its queen, Elizabeth I. However, his fleet was defeated. This setback greatly weakened Spain.
  45. Why did the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule?
    The Dutch had little in common with their Spanish rulers. The Netherlands had many Calvinist congregations. Philip raised taxes in the Netherlands and took steps to crush Protestantism. In response, angry Protestant mobs swept through Catholic churches. Philip then sent an army under the Spanish duke to punish the rebels. The Dutch continued to fight the Spanish for another 11 years. Finally, the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, which were largely Protestant, united and declared their independence from Spain.
  46. Why was the defeat of the Armada so important?
    Spain launched the Spanish Armada in an attempt to punish Protestant England and its queen, Elizabeth I. However, Philip’s fleet was defeated, which greatly weakened Spain. This helped lead to the weakening of the Spanish empire.
  47. Golden Age of Spain
    Spain had great wealth which allowed monarchs and nobles to become patrons of artists. Spain experienced a golden age in the arts. The works of two great painters show both the faith and the pride of Spain during this period. El Greco chose brilliant, clashing colors, distorted the human figure, and expressed emotion symbolically in his paintings. His unusual techniques showed the deep Catholic faith of Spain. Diego Velazquez drew paintings that reflected the pride of the Spanish monarchy. He drew portraits of the royal family and scenes of court life.
  48. Why did the Spanish empire weaken?
    The gold and silver that came from the Americas made Spain temporarily wealthy; however, this led to long-term economic problems. When Spain expelled the Jews and Muslims, it lost many valuable artisans and businesspeople. Additionally, the tax burden fell only on the lower classes, which prevented them from accumulating wealth. As a result, Spain never developed a middle class.
  49. Absolutism and divine right
    Absolute Monarchs believed that they were chosen to rule by God and anything they did was correct.
  50. What led to absolutism?
    As Europe emerged from the Middle Ages, monarchs grew increasingly powerful. The decline of feudalism, rise of cities, and growth of national kingdoms all led to the need of a central authority. In addition, the growing middle class usually backed monarchs. Church authority also broke down during the late Middle Ages and the Reformation, which opened even more control to for monarchs. During the time before absolute monarchs was a period of great upheaval. Religious and territorial conflicts led to constant warfare. This caused governments to build huge armies, and raise taxes even further. This in turn brought about widespread unrest. In response to these problems, monarchs tried to impose order by increasing their own power. They became absolute rulers.
  51. What religious conflict occurred in France?
    Conflicts between Catholics and Huguenots, French Protestants, grew during Catherine de Medicis’s reign. Huguenots and Catholics fought eight religious wars in the time span of 36 years. The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris sparked a six-week, nationwide slaughter of Huguenots. The massacre occurred when many Huguenot nobles were in Paris, and most of these nobles died. When Henry, a former Protestant, became king, he declared that the Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up their own houses of worship in some cities, which was called the Edict of Nantes.
  52. Goals of Richelieu
    Cardinal Richelieu was the minister of Louis XIII, and became, basically, the ruler of France. He tried to lead according to moral principles, but he was also ambitious and enjoyed exercising authority. He took two steps to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy. First he moved against Huguenots, he believed that Protestantism often served as an excuse for political conspiracies against the Catholic king. He also sought to weaken the nobles’ power. He wanted to make France the strongest state in Europe. He believed the greatest obstacle to this was the Hapsburg rulers, whose lands surrounded France. He involved France in the Thirty Years’ War.
  53. Impact of Louis XIV’s rule.
    Louis XIV was France’s most powerful ruler in French history. He involved France in many wars, which ruined France. Louis did leave a mixed legacy to France. On the positive side, France ranked above all other European nations in art, literature, and statesmanship during his reign. France was also considered the military leader of Europe. This military allowed France to develop a strong empire of colonies, which provided resources and goods for trade. On the negative side, he was constantly at war and plunged France into staggering debt.
  54. Purpose of Versailles and the problems it caused.
    Louis XIV, the king of France, built a splendid palace at Versailles, which was about 11 miles southwest of Paris. The palace itself stretched for a distance of about 500 yards. Because of its great size, Versailles was like a small royal city. Its rich decoration and furnishings showed Louis’s wealth and power to everyone who came to the palace. Versailles was a center of the arts during Louis’s reign. However, the construction of the palace of Versailles plunged France into staggering debt.
  55. War of Spanish Succession
    The War of the Spanish Succession occurred when France’s king’s grandson was given the throne of Spain. So, now the two greatest powers in Europe, enemies for so long, were both ruled by the French Bourbons. Other countries felt threatened by this increase in the Bourbon dynasty’s power. Several states joined together to prevent the union of the French and Spanish thrones. The War of the Spanish Succession is the long struggle that followed. The war went on for over 10 years. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed, and under its terms, Louis’s grandson was allowed to remain king of Spain as long as the thrones of France and Spain were not united.
  56. Thirty Years’ War
    The Thirty Years’ War was a conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families. It was fought between the Protestant and Catholic princes in Germany. The war did great damage to Germany. Its population dropped 4 million, trade and agriculture were disrupted, and Germany’s economy was ruined. Germany had a long, difficult recovery from this devastation. The Peace of Westphalia ended the war.
  57. Impact of Peace of Westphalia
    The Peace of Westphalia was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years’ War. The Peace of Westphalia weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria; strengthened France by awarding it German territory; and made German princes independent of the Holy Roman emperor. It also ended religious wars in Europe, and introduced a new method of peace negotiation whereby all participants meet to settle the problems of a war and decide the terms of peace. This method is still used today.
  58. Why does Prussia challenge Austria?
    Prussia challenges Austria because Frederick (the king of Prussia) wanted the Austrian land of Silesia, which bordered Prussia. Silesia produced iron ore, textiles, and food products. Frederick underestimated Maria Theresa’s strength. He thought that because she was a woman, she would not be forceful enough to defend her lands. He sent his army to occupy Silesia, beginning the War of the Austrian Succession.
  59. Impact of War of Austrian Succession
    Maria Theresa stopped Prussia’s aggression, but she lost Silesia in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. With the acquisition of Silesia, Prussia became a major European power.
  60. Westernization of Russia – how accomplished and by whom?
    The Westernization of Russia was accomplished by Peter the Great. Peter took a trip to the West, and became inspired and resolved that Russia would compete with Europe on both military and commercial terms. He brought the Russian Orthodox Church under state control. He reduced the power of the great landowners. To modernize his army, Peter hired European officers, who drilled his soldiers in European tactics with European weapons. Peter introduced potatoes, which became a staple of the Russian diet and he started Russia’s first newspaper. He raised women’s status by having them attend social gatherings and ordered the nobles to give up their traditional clothes for Western fashions. Additionally, Peter advanced education by opening a school of navigation and introducing schools for the arts and sciences.
  61. How does Russia differ from the West?
    When Peter I came to power, Russia was still a land of boyars and serfs. Serfdom in Russia lasted much longer than it did in western Europe. Russia was isolated, so it was cut off from the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration. Russia had only one seaport, which was filled with ice much of the year. There were religious differences between western Europe and Russia, too. The Russians had adopted the Eastern Orthodox branch of Christianity. Western Europeans were mostly Catholics of Protestants.
  62. Impact of Westernization of Russia
    Through the process of Westernizing Russia, Russia was introduced to potatoes, they started their first newspaper and women’s status was raised. Nobles had to give up their traditional clothes for Western fashions, and also advanced education. The Russian Orthodox Church was brought under state control. The power of the great landowners was also reduced.

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