Napoleon Review Sheet

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Napoleon Review Sheet
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Napoleon Review Sheet
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  1. Coup d’état
    “Blow the state”. It is the overthrow of a government.
  2. Plebiscite
    A vote of the people. Napoleon acted as if he was a constitutionally chosen leader of a free republic, so he held a plebiscite to approve a new constitution.
  3. Lycees
    Government-run public schools. Napoleon, while ending corruption and inefficiency in government, dismissed the corrupt officials and set up lycees in order to provide the government with trained officials. Graduates were appointed to public office on the basis on merit rather than family connections.
  4. Concordat
    An agreement. Napoleon signed a concordat with the pope, establishing a new relationship between church and state. The government now recognized the influence of the Church, but rejected Church in national affairs.
  5. Napoleonic Code
    Napoleon’s system of laws. It gave the country a uniform set of laws and eliminated many injustices; however, it actually limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights.
  6. Blockade
    A blockade is a forcible closing of ports. Napoleon set up a blockade to prevent all trade and communication between Great Britain and other European nations.
  7. Continental System
    The blockade sets up between Great Britain and other European nations. It was supposed to make continental Europe more self-sufficient.
  8. Guerilla
    Spanish peasant fighters. During the Peninsular War, for six years, bands of Spanish peasant fighters (guerillas) struck at French armies in Spain. The guerrillas were not an army that Napoleon could defeat in open battle. Rather, they worked in small groups that ambushed French troops and then fled into hiding.
  9. Peninsular War
    A war between Spain and France under Napoleon. In an effort to get Portugal to accept the Continental System, he sent an invasion force through Spain. The Spanish people protested this, so Napoleon removed the Spanish king and put in his own brother on the throne. This led to the Peninsular war.
  10. Scorched Earth policy
    The Russian czar refused to stop selling grain to Britain. Napoleon and Russia’s alliance broke down and Napoleon decided to invade Russia. As Russia pulled back, they practiced a scorched-earth policy. This involved burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing for the enemy to eat.
  11. Hundred Days
    Napoleon’s last bid for power. The British shipped Napoleon to a remote island in the South Atlantic. He lived there for six years before dying.
  12. Waterloo
    Located in Belgium. After being exiled from France, Napoleon soon came back and was again emperor. Napoleon attacked the British at Waterloo. The British and Prussian forces defeated Napoleon’s troops. This ended Napoleon’s last bid for power.
  13. Elba
    A tiny island off the Italian coast that Napoleon was banished to.
  14. St. Helena
    A remote island in the South Atlantic that Napoleon was shipped to for the second time. He lived here for 6 years before passing away.
  15. Napoleon Bonaparte
    Napoleon came into power of France. He was a very strong leader who led Europe to being at peace for the first time in ten years. He worked on restoring order to France, He got the economy on solid footing, dismissed corrupt officials, and in general supported laws that would both strengthen the central government and achieve some of the goals of the Revolution. He became emperor and actually took the crown from the pope, but crowned himself, signaling that he was more powerful than the Church. In time, Napoleon had control of most of Europe, creating a huge empire. It did collapse though and Napoleon was eventually exiled to an island. Still, he did not give up, and came back to France, becoming emperor again. However, this time he lost the Battle of Waterloo and was exiled to a remote island where he lived for six years before passing away.
  16. Admiral Nelson
    British commander who was as brilliant in warfare at sea as Napoleon was in warfare on land. He was involved in the Battle of Trafalgar, in which the British beat the French. This defeat of the French fleet forced Napoleon to giving up on his plans of invading Britain. It also ensured the supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years.
  17. Alexander I
    Russian czar. He was Napoleon’s ally; however, he refused to stop selling grain to Britain during the blockade. This led to Napoleon invading Russia.
  18. Duke of Wellington
    Led the British near Waterloo. This occurred after he had been exiled and came back to France to be emperor again. The British and Prussian army combined chased Napoleon’s troops from the field.
  19. Louis XVIII
    Became king of France after Napoleon was exiled to Elba. However, he quickly became unpopular among the French. When Napoleon heard the news of Louis’s troubles, he came back to France and was again crowned emperor.
  20. Know at least 5 ways Napoleon’s actions supported the ideas of the French Revolution and 5 ways it undermined the ideas of the French revolution.
    Ways Napoleon’s actions supported the ideas of the French Revolution:

    • Jobs were based on ability and talent
    • Napoleonic Code was made – a set of
    • laws making it so you can’t be unfairly imprisoned.
    • Rejected Church control in National affairs.
    • Supported laws that would both strengthen central government and achieve goals of French Revolution
    • People voted to approve constitution

    Ways Napoleon’s actions undermined the ideas of the French Revolution:

    • Restored slavery
    • Crowns himself Emperor
    • Freedom of speech and press restricted
    • Napoleonic Code promoted order and authority over individual rights
    • Napoleonic code limited liberty
  21. Who was involved and why was the Battle of Trafalgar important
    The Battle of Trafalgar was the only major battle that Napoleon lost in his drive for a European empire. This war took occurred between the British, led by Horatio Nelson, and the French, led by Napoleon. Nelson was as brilliant in warfare at sea as Napoleon was in warfare on land. The British destroyed the French fleet. It was important because it had two major results. First, it ensured the supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years. Second, it forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading Britain.
  22. Explain the extent of Napoleon’s empire in 1812.
    Napoleon had control of most of Europe. By 1812, the only areas of Europe free from Napoleon’s control were Britain, Portugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire. Napoleon also controlled numerous supposedly independent countries. The rulers of these independent countries were Napoleon’s puppets. Furthermore, Russia, Prussia, and Austria were loosely attached to Napoleon’s empire through alliances. Although not totally under Napoleon’s control, they were easily manipulated by threats of military action.
  23. Explain Napoleon’s 3 major mistakes.
    Napoleon’s three major mistakes were the Continental System, the Peninsular War, and the Invasion of Russia. Napoleon set up a blockade to prevent all trade and communication between Great Britain and other European nations – this was called the Continental System. Many people smuggled cargo from Britain into Europe. Napoleon’s allies disregarded the policy. The blockade did weaken British trade; however, it did not destroy it. In addition, Britain responded with its own blockade. In an effort to get Portugal to accept the Continental System, Napoleon sent an invasion force through Spain. The Spanish people protested, and Napoleon removed the Spanish king and put his own brother on the throne. For six years guerrillas attacked French armies in Spain. They worked in small groups that ambushed French troops and then fled into hiding. The Invasion of Russia also occurred because he was attempting to enforce the blockade. The Russian czar refused to stop selling grain to Britain. Russia and France’s alliance broke down, and Napoleon decided to invade Russia. When going into war, Alexander, Russia’s czar, pulled back his troops, refusing to be lured into an unequal battle. On this retreat, the Russians practiced a scorched-earth policy, burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so the French had nothing to eat. Napoleon moved onto Moscow. When Napoleon entered Moscow, the city was in flames. Alexander had destroyed Russia’s “holy city” rather than surrendering it. Napoleon started with 422,000 troops, but after the retreat from Moscow, they had 10,000 soldiers.
  24. Why did people in other European nations resist Napoleon’s efforts to build an empire?
    People in other European nations resisted Napoleon’s efforts to build an empire because they saw how powerful he was. They also saw what a threat he could become. If he could build up an empire, he might try to take over all of Europe, which he did try to do.
  25. How was Napoleon finally defeated?
    After surrendering to Prussia and Russia, Napoleon gave up his throne. Napoleon was banished to Elba. However, this was not the defeat of Napoleon. When he heard of the king’s troubles, he escaped from Elba, returned to France, and within a few days was again crowned emperor. His final defeat came at the battle at Waterloo. The British and Prussian forces attacked the French and chased the French from the field. The Hundred Days was Napoleon’s last bid for power. Napoleon was shipped to St. Helena, a remote island where he lived in exile for 6 years before he passed away.

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