Chp. 23

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Chp. 23
2010-03-02 22:55:50
Bio H

Bacteria Chapter
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  1. Prokaryotes
    Single-celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus
  2. Peptidoglycan
    A protein-carbohydrate compound found in bacterial cell walls
  3. Methanogens
    Named for their unique way of getting energy: they convert hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide into methane gas
  4. Halophiles
    "Salt-loving" archaea that live in environments that have very high salt concentrations
  5. Thermoacidophiles
    Live in very acidic environments that have very high temperatures
  6. Bacilli
    Rod-shaped bacteria
  7. Cocci
    Sphere-shaped bacteria
  8. Spirilla
    Spiralshaped bacteria
  9. Streptococci
    When cocci occur in chains
  10. Staphylococci
    Grapelike clusters of cocci
  11. Gram-negative Bacteria
    Take up the 2nd, red dye of the Gram stain process which makes the cells appear reddish pink under the microscope
  12. Gram-positive Bacteria
    Retain the purple dye in their cell walls and appear purple
  13. Antibiotics
    Chemicals that inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms
  14. Plasmid
    Small, circular, self-replicating loops of double-stranded DNA
  15. Capsule
    Outer covering of polysaccharides
  16. Glycocalyx
    A capsule made up of a fuzzy coat of sticky sugars
  17. Pili
    Short, hairlike protein structures on the surfaceof some bacteria
  18. Endospore
    A thick-coated, resistant structure that can form on some Gram-positive bacteria
  19. Heterotrophs
    Organisms that get their carbon from other organisms
  20. Autotrophs
    Organisms that get their carbon directly from the inorganic molecule carbon dioxide
  21. Phototrophs
    Organisms that get energy from light
  22. Chemotrophs
    Get energy from chemicals taken from the environment
  23. Obligate Anaerobes
    Organisms that cannot live where molecular oxygen, O2, is present
  24. Facultative Anaerobes
    Can live with or without oxygen
  25. Obligate Aerobes
    Prokaryotes that need oxygen to live
  26. Transformation
    Occurs when a prokaryote takes in DNA from its outside environment
  27. Conjugation
    The process by which two prokaryotes bind together and one cell transfers DNA to the other cell through a structure called a sex pilus
  28. Transduction
    A virus obtains a small part of DNA from a host prokaryote
  29. Pathology
    The scientific study of disease
  30. Exotoxins
    Toxic substances that bacteria secrete into their environment
  31. Endotoxins
    Toxic substances made of lipids and carbohydrates associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria
  32. Antibiotic Resistance
    The evolution of populations of pathogenic bacteria that antibiotics are unable to kill
  33. Zoonosis
    A disease that can pass from animals to humans
  34. Bioremediation
    Harnessing bacteria to recycle compounds