Psych 315

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Anonymous
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8743
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Psych 315
Updated:
2010-03-01 22:45:27
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psychology
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Developmental Psychology
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  1. 7 Themes in Child Development
    1. Nature and Nurture

    • 2. The Active Child
    • (selective attention, solo language practice, pretend play, choose environments)

    • 3. Continuity vs. Discontinuity
    • 4. Mechanisms of Change

    • 5. Sociocultural Factors
    • (physical, social, economic, cultural, historical)

    • 6. Individual Differences
    • (genes, treatment from others, choice of environment, unique reactions to events)

    7. Research & Children's Welfare
  2. 3 Basic Research Methods
    • 1. Interviews (structured & clinical)
    • Pros - subjective, easy, inexpensive
    • Cons - positively biased, inaccurate recall, inaccurate predictions, experimenter bias

    • 2. Naturalistic Observation
    • Pros - studies social interactions
    • Cons - no control, observer influence, experimenter bias

    3. Structured Observation (experimental & correlational)
  3. 4 Child/Infant Research Designs
    • 1. Preferential Looking
    • 2. Habituation
    • 3. Violation of Expectation

    4. Microgenetic
  4. 4 Gene-Environment Interactions
    • 1. Parent's Phenotype - Child's Genotype
    • (diversity due to: mutations, random assortment of genes, crossing over)

    • 2. Child's Genotype - Child's Phenotype
    • (multiple alleles, regulator genes, polygenic influence)

    • 3. Child's Environment - Child's Phenotype
    • ("norm of reaction")

    4. Child's Phenotype - Child's Environment
  5. Properties of Heritability
    An estimate of the proportion of measured variability on a given trait in a population:

    • 1. applies to a popn. living in a particular environment at a particular period of time
    • 2. reveals nothing about an individual
    • 3. high heritability does not equal immutability
    • 4. heritability reveals nothing about between-group differences
  6. Piagetian Theory
    Assimilation, Accomodation, Equilibration

    • 1. Sensorimotor Stage
    • 2. Preoperational Stage
    • 3. Concrete Operational Stage
    • 4. Formal Operational Stage
  7. Sensorimotor Stage (Piaget)
    • - simple reflexes
    • - lack object permanence
    • - deferred imitation
    • - demonstrate A-not-B Error
  8. Preoperational Stage (Piaget)
    • - learn symbolic representation; use conventional symbols
    • - incapable of operations; can't understand conservation
    • - centration
    • - egocentrism
  9. Concrete Operational Stage (Piaget)
    • - understand conservation
    • - logical reasoning about concrete (but not abstract) objects
    • - difficulty w/ scientific thinking
  10. Formal Operational Stage (Piaget)
    • - abstract, hypothetical thinking
    • - scientific reasoning
  11. Information Processing Theories
    • - continuous cognitive change
    • - thinking occurs over time; behaviours involve multiple mental operations
    • - cognitive growth due to: basic processes, use of strategies, content knowledge
    • - processing speed increases due to: experience, brain develop., myelination
  12. Core Knowledge Theories
    • - innate cognitive abilities due to evolution
    • - emphasize modularity (physics, psychology, biology)
  13. Sociocultural Theories
    • - cognitive development thru interpersonal contact
    • - children are products of culture

    • 1. Zone of Proximal Development
    • 2. Social Scaffolding
    • 3. Joint Attention
    • 3. Intersubjectivity
    • 4. Social Referencing
  14. Selman's Theory of Role Taking
    (Social Cognition)
    • - children show deficits in perspective-taking
    • - 4 stages of role-taking:

    • 1. appreciate that others have diff. POVs
    • 2. think about other's POV
    • 3. systematically compare own POV to others'
    • 4. understand others' POV by comparing it to 'generalized other'
  15. Dodge's Info-Processing Theory
    (Social Cognition)
    - 6 steps in social problem-solving:

    • 1. encode problem
    • 2. interpret social cues
    • 3. formulate goals
    • 4. generate strategies
    • 5. evaluate success of strategies
    • 6. enact behaviour
  16. Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Model
    • Microsystem
    • Mesosystem
    • Exosystem
    • Macrosystem
    • Chronosystem
  17. Kohlberg's Cognitive Developmental Theory
    • 1. Gender Identity
    • 2. Gender Stability
    • 3. Gender Constancy
  18. Maccoby's Theory of Gender Segregation
    • 1. Innate preference for same-sex peers
    • 2. Find that same-sex play styles are more compatible
    • 3. Develop gender knowledge
    • 4. Peer pressure
    • 5. Adult interactions w/ children
  19. 3 False Belief Tests
    1. Displacement Task (Sally-Ann)

    2. Unexpected Contents Task (Smarties box)

    3. Appearance-Reality Task
  20. 2 Alternative Explanations of Theory of Mind
    • 1. Radical Shift Theory
    • - children <4 are incapable of attributing false beliefs
    • - hold a "copy theory" of the world; beliefs = reality

    • 2. Processing Demands Theory
    • - failure due to lack of processing resources (ie. memory, attention)
    • - "curse of knowledge"

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