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- Mountainious-raised sheep for meat & wool
- rocky soil-grew olives
- Surrounded by sea-traded for grain
- Liked killing
- Long body hair
How did the landscape of Greece affect the economy?
- Had to rely on sea
- Trade for food & supplies
- Had to grow crops that thrived in rocky soil
Sheltered places along the coast 4 ships and town peeps.
Why is Attica a good place for trade?
They had many harbors for traders to use.
How/Where did Greek cities first develop
Along sea trade routes, allowing these cities to grow and the people to communicate with other lands.
Body of land w/ water on three sides.
Who were the first inhabbitance of Greece?
- The Minoans, who were not Greek, on the island of Crete.
How did the Minoans become traders?
- They were skillful sailors
- Built sturdy ships
- Sail long distances to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
- They traded pottery for ivory & medal
- Invaded Greece form Central Asia
- Became frist Greek kings
- Major Trading power
- Copied Minoan and took over
- Greeks forgot written language
- Trade slowed
- Bad farming
Changes during the Dark Age
- Population shifted to Greek Islands & Turkey
- •Expanded Greek culture
- Surplus food & increased trade
- Picked up ideas/Greek alphebet
Iron Weapons were better than Bronze
What is a colony
A settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland.
- Gathering place at the top of the hill.
- Gathering place and religous center.
A market & a place where people could debate.
How did the creation of colonies affect trade?
- Colonists shiped the parent cities grains and metals while colonists recieved pottery & olive oil from the mainland.
- Led to the growth of industry
- Specilization such as pottery & jewelery
- Greek Citizen Soldiers
- Marched in rows and fought for their city states
Greeks had the right to choose rulers and make laws, vote, own property. In return they had to serve in government and as citizen soldiers
Why did Philip II want to take over Greece?
Philip needed to make the Greek city-states part of the kingdom so he would be powerful enough to conciet the Persian Empire
I HATE LOVE MoMmY!!!!
- Someone who takes power by force
- Rules with total authority
What led to the rise of Tyrants?
- Greek farmers, merchants, & artisans were unhappy with the nobles rules
- They wanted a say in the government
Few people holding power
All citizen sharing in running the government
Life in Sparta...
- Men stayed in army until age 60Girls trained in sports
- Men entered army at age 20 and lived in barracks
- Boys trained for war
Enforced the laws of Sparta
- By focusing on military training, they fell behind in trade and science.
Why was the military so important to the Spartans?
Spartans feared that enslaved Helots might rebel against Sparta
Life in Athens
- Emphasized education over military strenghts
- Boys went to school
- Girls stayed home to learn household duties (some rich girls went to school)
- RED-ATHENS, BLUE-SPARTA, BLACK & YELLOW-LESSON 1 YELLOW AND ORANGE-LESSON 4
How did Cleisthenes strengthen democracy in Athens?
- He created a 500 citizen council to carry out daily business.
- All male citizens could openly debate
- Organized government to be better
- Divided empire into 20 Satrapies
- Organized Persian government to work better
- Invaded Greece with 180,000 troops
- Son of Darius
Cyrus the Great
- United Persians into powerful kingdom
- Royal Road
What purpose did the Royal Road serve?
Connected many the many cities in the Persian Empire
Protector of the kingdom
How did the Athenians win the battle of Marathon?
- They knew they did not have enough soldiers to attack the Persians
- Persians had twice as many soldiers GRAM CRAPERS
- They waited until the strongest part of Persian army boarded a ship to Athens and then attacked the few remaining soldiers on foot.
What events led up to the Persian War?
- The Greek city-states set up colonies in the Eastern Mediterranean
- Greeks clashed with the Persians
How was Greece able to win the war against the Persians
All the Greek city-states came together to form a large army and Greeks had smaller and faster ships.
- City states joined together to ward off threat of Persians
- But NOT Sparta
People gather at mass meetings to decide on government matters
Citizens choose a smaller group to make lawa and governmental decisions.
Similarity between Direct & Represenative Democracy
Citizens have a say in how they are governed
Strengths of Delian League before and after 450 BC
- Before - formed to defend against Persia and drive Persians out of Greek territories in Asia Minor. Athens controlled the league with a strong navy used to fight the persians.
- After - Treasury moved to Athens. Athens gained power and sent troops to other city states to help common people rebel agains nobles in power.
- Beginning of Athenian empire and classical age.
How did poor citizens become more involved in government?
Pericles allowed lower class citizens to run for public office.
What effects did the Peloponnesian war have on Greece?
- All of the Greek city states were weakened.
- Many people died in the fighting and thousands of farms were destroyed.
- People were jobless amd it was impossible for Greeks to unite.
- Athenian General who guided Athens for 30 years
- Help them dominate Delian League
- Demanded strict loyalty and steady payments from ohter city states.
- Athens was getting too rich and powerful so other city states grew suspicious and joined forces against Athens.
- Lasted 27 years
How was Athens defeated in the Pelo. War?
Sparta did not have a navy, so they made a deal with Persia, giving them some Greek land, in exchange for money to build a navy which destroyed the Athenian navy.
Where/when did the Greeks defeat the Persians
Famous speech by Pericles reminding people of the power of democracy and gave them courage to keep fighting the Pelo war