Bio004, College of the Desert
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Biosphere: That which consists of all the enviornments on Earth that support life.
Ecosystems: An ecosystem consists of all organisms living in a particular area, as well as the nonliving physical components of the enviornment that affect the organisms, such as water, air, soil, and sunlight.
Communities: All organisms in a more specified area, ie: water, land, air, region of that particular ecosystem.
Populations: Within communities are various populations, groups, of interacting individuals of one species.
Organisms: An organism is an individual living thing.
Organ systems and organs
Organ Systems and organs: An organism's body consists of several organ systems, each which contains two or more organs.
- Tissue: Each organ is made up of several different tissues, such as the heart muscle tissue. A tissue consists of a group of simulare cells performing a specific function.
Cells: The cell is the smallest unit that can display all the characteristics of life.
Organelles: Are functional components of cells, such as the nucleus that houses the DNA.
Molecules and atoms
- Molecules and atoms: The chemical level in the hierarchy. Molecules are clusters of even smaller chemical units called atoms. Each cell consists of an enormous number of chemicals that function together to give the cell the properties we recognize as life. DNA, the molecule of inheritance and the substance of genes, is shown here as a computer graphic. Each sphere in the DNA model represents a single atom.
some Properties of life
- Some properties of life: consist of
- Growth and Development
- Energy utilization
- Response to the environment
Nutrient and energy flow in an ecosystem
- Nutrient and energy flow in an ecosystem
The 3 Domains of Life
- The three Domains of life: (also called the three groups) are:
- Note: The first two domains, Bacteria and Archaea, identify two very different groups of organisms that have prokaryotic cells. All the Eukaryotes (organisms with eukaryotic cells) are placed within the domain Eukarya, which is further divided into smaller categories called kingdomes.
Name the three domains of life. To which do you belong?
- We belong to Eukarya.
Name three kingdoms found within the domain to which humans belong. Name a fourth group within this domain.
- 4. the Protists
Darwinian View of Life
- The Darwinian view of life:
- 1. Darwinian's view was that everything current descended from ancestral species. Called "descent with modification".
- 2. "The Origin of Species", the process of natural selection, (the strong will survive).
Darwin's first critical observation
- Darwin's First critical observation:
- 1. "Overproduction and compitition", Each species could produce more offsping then the envoirnment would sustain, so the species then has compitition within itself for the limited resources.
Darwin's second critical observation
- Darwin's second critical observation:
- 2. "Individual Variation", [Natural Selection], No two individuals could reproduce the exact same offspring, meaning each would pass on different traits that would help it's offspring (like, color, sight, hearing, etc.).
- Over time, the population would grow increasingly to the traits that would best suit the enviornment, weeding out the bad traits.
Darwin's observation of Artificial Selection
- Darwin's observation of Artificial Selection:
- Humans altering mating habbits for plants and animals, for food, security, and companionship. Darwin points out that it is obviouse by the way our pets have been bred for fancy, rather then utility.
What mechanism did Darwin propose for evelution? What three-word phrase summarizes this mechanism?
- Natural Selection
- Unequal reproductive success
- 1. Observation:
- 2. Question:
- 3. Hypothesis:
- 4. Prediction:
- 5. Experiment:
- 6. Predicted result:
A proposed explanation for a set of observations-an idea on trial.
Hypothesis-Driven science: the most modern scientific investigations are described as Hypothesis-Driven science.
Place the following steps in a scientific investigation in their proper order: experiment, hypothesis, observation, prediction, results, question, revise/repeat.
- 1. observation
- 2. question
- 3. hypothesis
- 4. prediction
- 5. experiment
- 6. results
- 7. revise/repeat
Controlled Experiment: An experiment in which the only thing allowed to change is the variable in study.
- Theory: a much broader scope then a hypothesis.
- [ment more for a much larger scale, as suppose to and individual occurence]
In what way does modern genetic engineering depend on the common ancestry shared by all life on Earth?
Genetic engineering is made possable by the fact that all life uses chemically indentical DNA, a result of our evelution from a common ancestor.
PLace the folowing levels of biological organization in order from smallest to largest: atom, biosphere, cell, ecosystem, molecule, organ, organism, population, tissue. I which is the smallest level capable of demonstraiting all of the characteristics of life?
- 1. Atom
- 2. Molecule
- 3. Cell
- 4. Tissue
- 5. Organ
- 6 Organism
- 7. Population
- 8. Ecosystem
- 9. Biosphere
- And a Cell is the smallest level capable of displaying all the charactoristics of life.
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